פרסומים אחרונים

Dr. Yael Idisis

Idisis, Y. & Edoute, A. (2017). Attribution of blame and severity in rape as a function of the victim's behavior before, during and after the rape among therapists and non-therapists. International Review of Victimology, Volume: 23 issue: 3, page(s): 257-274

https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758017711980

Abstract

This article examines Wolf’s hypothesis of modular judgment in the context of rape myths and attribution of blame to rape victims. Modular judgment was operationalized using blame schemata suited to judgment of everyday aggression. Each of 88 female participants, of whom 29 were sexual trauma survivor therapists, 29 were sex offender therapists and 30 were non-therapists, was presented with written descriptions of 16 rapes, which included information regarding the victim’s behaviors before (her prior sexual experience), during (the kind and the degree of the resistance she exhibited) and after the rape (meeting or not meeting with the attacker). Dependent variables were attribution of blame to the survivor, attribution of blame to the attacker and judgments regarding severity of the rape. As expected, the therapists attributed less blame to the survivors and more blame to the attacker, and judged the rapes as slightly more severe than did non-therapist participants. For all participants in this study, the survivor’s behavior after the rape carried the greatest weight regarding attribution of responsibility to her. These results are discussed in terms of the theories of modular judgment and defensive attribution, and the just world theory. We recommend further investigations with regard to the perceived connection between survivors’ behaviors after a rape and blame attribution.

 

Dr. Moshe Bensimon

Lozon, J., & Bensimon, M. (2017). A systematic review on the functions of rap among gangs. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(11), 1243-1261.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X15618430

Abstract

Although the field of gangs is well studied, information regarding the way gangs may use or misuse music for different needs is sparse. The aim of this systematic review is to gather descriptive and empirical information to ascertain the important roles rap music possesses within gang life. This review suggests five main functions of rap used within gangs with an emphasis on the subgenre of gangsta rap. First, rap facilitates antisocial behavior by reinforcing such messages in its lyrics. Second, its deviant lyrics serve as a reflection of the violent reality experienced in many urban ghetto communities. Third, it operates as a means for constructing individual and collective identity, as well as resistance identity. Fourth, it functions as an educating force by teaching its members how to act and respond in the urban ghetto. Finally, rap glorifies gang norms among newcomers and successfully spreads its values to the general population.

Bensimon, M., Bodner, E., & Shrira, A. (2017). The emotional impact of national music on young and older adults differing in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Aging and Mental Health, 21(10), 1090-1098.

https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1196338

Abstract

In spite of previous evidence regarding the function of national songs as a contextual stimulus, their effect on the emotional state of older adults living with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not be been examined. Following the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, we examined the emotional effects of listening to happy national songs (songs of Independence Day) and sad national songs (Memorial Day songs) on young (N = 144, mean age = 29.4) and older adults (N = 132, mean age = 68.5). Respondents were exposed to happy or sad national songs, and completed measures of exposure to missile attacks, related PTSD symptoms, and positive and negative emotions. Sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among young adults who were lower on PTSD symptoms, but not among their older counterparts. In contrast, sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among older adults who were higher on PTSD symptoms, but not among their young counterparts. These findings support the strength and vulnerability model, as they demonstrate that relative to young adults, older adults are generally more capable to withstand negative stimuli, yet are more sensitive to negative stimuli when they suffer from chronic vulnerability, as in the case of higher level of PTSD symptoms.

Shrira, A., Ayalon, L., Bensimon, M., Bodner, E., Rosenbloom, T., & Yadid, G. (2017). Parental post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms are related to successful aging in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-12.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01099

Abstract

A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring’s secondary traumatization symptoms. In Study 1, 101 adult offspring (mean age = 62.31) completed measures of parental PTSD, secondary traumatization, as well as successful aging indices – objective (medical conditions, disability and somatic symptoms) and subjective (perceptions of one’s aging). Relative to comparisons and OHS who reported that none of their parents suffered from probable PTSD, OHS who reported that their parents suffered from probable PTSD had lower scores in objective and subjective measures of successful aging. Mediation analyses showed that higher level of secondary traumatization mediated the relationship between parental PTSD and less successful aging in the offspring. Study 2 included 154 dyads of parents (mean age = 81.86) and their adult offspring (mean age = 54.48). Parents reported PTSD symptoms and offspring reported secondary traumatization and completed measures of objective successful aging. Relative to comparisons, OHS whose parent had probable PTSD have aged less successfully. Once again, offspring secondary traumatization mediated the effect. The findings suggest that parental post-traumatic reactions assessed both by offspring (Study 1) and by parents themselves (Study 2) take part in shaping the aging of the subsequent generation via reactions of secondary traumatization in the offspring. The studies also provide initial evidence that these processes can transpire even when offspring do not have probable PTSD or when controlling offspring anxiety symptoms. Our findings allude to additional behavioral and epigenetic processes that are potentially involved in the effect of parental PTSD on offspring aging, and further imply the need to develop interdisciplinary interventions aiming at promoting successful aging among offspring of traumatized parents.

Bensimon, M. (2017). Victimization in light of self-compassion: Development towards communal compassion. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 35, 44-51.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.002

Abstract

The discipline of victimology emerged and continues to develop in response to the need to analyze the phenomenology of victims of crime. In the last decade, a new trend, positive victimology, has emerged; it emphasizes the role of “positive components” in efforts to promote the rehabilitation and recovery of victims. This perspective stresses the role of society and community in acceptance, encouragement, faith, forgiveness, goodness, gratitude, and compassion towards victims. One positive healing concept that has recently been found valuable for victims' well-being is that of self-compassion. The aim of the current paper was to explore the theory of self-compassion, which was first presented by Kristin D. Neff (2003a), as it applies to the lived experience of victimization. A comprehensive review of literature indicated the presence of uncompassionate responses as central in the lived experience of victims. These components include: (a) self-judgment and self-blame; (b) loneliness and alienation; and (c) over-identification and experiential avoidance. Seeing victimization from this perspective can deepen the understanding of victims' needs to increase compassionate and reduce uncompassionate responding. The present exploration also revealed the need, in the case of victimization, to adopt the notion of communal compassion, which expands the focus from self-compassion to compassion in the community.

Edri, O., & Bensimon, M. (2018). The role of music among prisoners and prison staff: A qualitative research study. European Journal of Criminology.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370818775295

Abstract

Music is an integral part of every subculture, including that of prisons. However, no research has yet examined the meaning of music for prisoners and prison staff. The present research examined the role of music in the world of prisoners in Israel and how prison staff experience it. Content analysis of interviews with 10 convicted prisoners and 9 prison staff members indicated four central themes: the different ways prisoners consume and are exposed to music; the role of music in provoking positive and negative feelings; the role of music in the relationships among inmates – closeness and conflicts; and the role of music in the relationships between prisoners and prison staff, particularly in terms of prison regulation of music consumption.

Bensimon, M., Shaul, S., Div. S., Sandler, L., & Teitelbaum, A. (2018). Patient–centered approach in closed psychiatric wards: The curative power of relaxing music chosen by patients. Israel Journal of Psychiatry, 55(2), 55-58

Free full text  https://cdn.doctorsonly.co.il/2018/10/11_Patient-centered-Approach.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Psychiatry is changing as medicine adopts a patient-centered approach. This model of care places greater emphasis on the patients' involvement in determining the goals of their treatment and the nature of their care. This study offers a non-verbal patient-centered intervention by using relaxing music chosen by patients in a closed psychiatric ward to achieve reduction in levels of stress and psychomotor agitation.

METHOD:

Participants, patients in closed wards, entered a seclusion room whenever they showed psychomotor agitation, overwhelming stress or physical and verbal aggression. While in the seclusion room, participants in the research group (n=24) were exposed to relaxing music of their choice whereas the comparative group (n=28) did not receive any sensory stimulation. The participants filled out the Visual Analogue Scale to measure their emotional state before and after this experience while the staff filled out the Behavioral Activity Rating Scale.

RESULTS:

Results show significantly higher emotional calm and prominent reduction in psychomotor agitation among the research group in comparison with the comparative group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Relaxing music chosen by patients has a positive effect on their emotional state and behavioral activity and may therefore serve as an alternative sensory intervention before patients reach violent situations that require restraint.

Dr. Keren Gueta

Gueta, K. (2018). The Experience of Prisoners’ Parents: A Meta‐Synthesis of Qualitative Studies. Family process57(3), 767-782

https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12312

Abstract

The parents of prisoners have long drawn the attention of researchers, due to their role in the etiology of criminality as well as the importance of their support of their offspring during and after incarceration. However, although studies have shown that the parents of prisoners experience high levels of distress, burden, and social stigma, research into their experience is only now beginning to emerge. This metasynthesis examined the limited body of qualitative research on the experience of prisoners’ parents, as an exploratory step toward advancing the understanding of their experience. Relevant terms were used to systematically search key databases. Ten small‐scale studies, which varied in focus, location, and disciplinary orientation, met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis produced four core themes, reflecting findings regarding parents’ (primarily mothers’) experience of their offspring's incarceration: parenting from a distance; the burden of care; troubled parental identity; and social reaction. Furthermore, the findings suggested a number of possible mediating factors of this experience, such as parents’ social capital and their cognitive appraisal of their offspring's criminality.  These themes imply a possible experience of “imprisonment by association” among the parents of inmates and illuminate features that may be unique to them. Given the inherent limitations regarding generalizability of a metasynthesis and the heterogeneity of the experiences of the parents represented by the articles reviewed, the findings call for future large‐scale quantitative studies to explore the challenges and therapeutic needs of parents of prisoners regarding the themes identified.

Gueta, K. (2017). A qualitative study of barriers and facilitators in treating drug use among Israeli mothers: An intersectional perspective. Social Science & Medicine187, 155-163

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.06.031

Abstract

Rationale: Despite the benefits and availability of drug treatment in Western countries, research has shown low utilisation rates, especially by mothers. Studies have indicated internal barriers (e.g., shame) and external/structural barriers (e.g., poverty) to women's utilisation of drug treatment, but little is known about the interrelated axes of marginalization that create such barriers and, even less, facilitators of treatment. A promising avenue for examining this path may be the theoretical perspective of intersectionality, which has often been used to illustrate how women's experiences are shaped by gender in conjunction with other factors, including class, age, and race. 

Objective: The purpose of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators of  drug abuse treatment among substance-abusing mothers, including practical implications. 

Methods :In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 Israeli-born and immigrant mothers known to child protection and welfare agencies. A critical feminist theoretical perspective informed by intersectionality was adopted to examine the barriers to and facilitators of their enrolment in drug treatment.

Results: Thematic analysis revealed three themes in the interrelationships of different factors and treatment utilisation. First, the threat of losing child custody was interrelated with lack of social and family support, immigration status, being post-partum, and economic hardship to shape barriers to treatment. Second, a set of coping resources originating in their marginality was interrelated with opportunity for treatment. Last, the participants suggested changes that would encourage treatment utilisation, with focus on non-judgmental referral procedures.

Conclusions: The findings indicated that barriers and facilitators are interrelated and co-constructed, reflecting the interlocking of power and oppression across the axes of class, gender, and ethnicity. Focusing on social inequality and gender in policies and research on women's drug treatment, the findings may inform the development of strategies to overcome treatment barriers.

 

Prof. Joseph Glicksohn

Time Perception and the Experience of Time When Immersed in an Altered Sensory Environment

Joseph Glicksohn1,2*Aviva Berkovich-Ohana3Federica Mauro4 and Tal D. Ben-Soussan5

https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00487

Abstract

The notion that exposure to a monotonous sensory environment could elicit reports indicating aberrant subjective experience and altered time perception is the impetus for the present report. Research has looked at the influence of exposure to such environments on time perception, reporting that the greater the environmental variation, the shorter is the time estimation obtained by the method of production. Most conditions for creating an altered sensory environment, however, have not facilitated an immersive experience, one that directly impacts both time perception and subjective experience. In this study, we invited our participants to enter a whole-body altered sensory environment for a 20-min session, wherein they were asked to relax without falling asleep. The session included white-colored illumination of the chamber with eyes closed (5 min), followed by 10 min of illuminating the room with color, after which a short report of subjective experience was collected using a brief questionnaire; this was followed by an additional 5 min of immersion in white light with closed eyes. The participants were then interviewed regarding their subjective experience, including their experience of time within the chamber. Prior to entering the chamber, the participants completed a time-production (TP) task. One group of participants then repeated the task within the chamber, at the end of the session; a second group of participants repeated the task after exiting the chamber. We shall report on changes in TP, and present data indicating that when produced time is plotted as a function of target duration, using a log–log plot, the major influence of sensory environment is on the intercept of the psychophysical function. We shall further present data indicating that for those participants reporting a marked change in time experience, such as “the sensation of time disappeared,” their TP data could not be linearized using a log–log plot, hence indicating that for these individuals there might be a “break” in the psychophysical function.

 

Intelligence and psychopathy: A study on non-incarcerated females from the normal population

Tal Ben-Yaacov &Joseph Glicksohn |Marco Tommasi (Reviewing Editor)

Full Text: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311908.2018.1429519?scroll=top&needAccess=true

Abstract

Most research on the relation between psychopathy and intelligence has been conducted with incarcerated male samples. However, psychopathic traits can be found among non-incarcerated individuals, male or female, possessing high intellectual capacities. The construct of psychopathy has been comparatively understudied in women. We hypothesized a positive correlation between interpersonal psychopathic traits and intelligence among females, whereby those non-criminal females having high scores on these traits would be more intelligent than those having low scores on these traits. We carried out a correlational analysis and group comparisons on a sample of 121 non-criminal females. Variables that were measured include the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) total score and its two subscales; the Levenson Primary and Secondary Psychopathy (LPSP) total score and its two subscales; Psychoticism (P) and intelligence measured by Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). A significant positive correlation (r = .33, p < .05) was found between LPSP-I (interpersonal affective factor) and SPM. Separate ANOVAs were conducted to compare SPM scores of the participants, when they were allocated to groups based on either the PPI or the LPSP scores. Performance of the interpersonal affective group (M = 53.32, SD = 3.45) was better than that of the two other groups (M = 50.26, SD = 3.25 for “Impulsive Antisocial”, and M = 49.37, SD = 4.67 for “non psychopathy”).

 

Glicksohn, J., Golan-Smooha, H., Naor-Ziv, R., Aluja, A., & Zuckerman, M. (2018). Uncovering the structure of personality, with a focus on the ZKA-PQ.  International Journal of Personality Psychology, 4, 13-19.

Full Text: https://ijpp.rug.nl/article/view/31084/28391

Abstract

Objective: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire provides scores for the five dimensions of the Alternative 5, namely Extraversion, Neuroticism, Sensation Seeking, Aggressiveness, and Activity.  What is the degree of interdependence among these five traits (dimensions) of the ZKA-PQ? What do we know about the internal structure of the multidimensional space defined by the Alternative 5?  Method: To address these questions, we employ a multiway classification of our 460 participants, using independent median splits along these five dimensions, resulting in a partitioning of the dimensional space into its 25 (= 32) sectors. This results in a multiway frequency table that we analyze using the log-linear model.  Results: The Alternative 5 defines a multidimensional space wherein all these combinations (profiles) do exist—hence providing testimony to the adequacy of this conceptualization. In our two-dimensional plots, we see both the non-homogeneity of personality space and areas in which personality types might well be found.   Conclusions: The contribution of a log-linear model here is to go beyond these surface-level, two-way relationships, and to take into account the higher-order interactions present in the model.  How to relate the complexity of the analysis (model) while achieving an understanding of the nature of this personality space is worthy of further study.

 

Prof. Sophie Walsh

Tartakovsky, E., Walsh, S.D.,  Patrakov, E. &  Nikulina, M (2017) Between Two Worlds? Value Preferences of Immigrants Compared to Local-Born Populations in the Receiving country and in the Country of Origin  Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 48, 835–853

https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117709534

Abstract

In the present study, we investigate value preferences of immigrants, comparing them with local-born populations in the receiving country and in the immigrants’ country of origin. In addition, we test the effect of time in the receiving country on the value preferences of immigrants. Three groups of respondents took part in the study: Israeli-born Jews (n = 1,082), immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel (n = 237), and Jews living in Russia (n = 935). Differences in value preferences between the groups and their relationship with time in country in the immigrants’ value preferences were hypothesized on the basis of four psychological mechanisms: premigration formation of values and their preservation in the new country, self-selection of immigrants, acculturation (classical and paradoxical), and a reaction to the stress of adjustment in the new country. The results obtained demonstrated that the value system of immigrants in general was different from the value system of the nonimmigrant populations in both the country of origin and in the receiving country. When comparing immigrants and two other populations in each of the 19 basic values separately, it was found that immigrants reported higher levels of power dominance, power resources, and security social values, and lower levels of values of universalism tolerance, universalism concern, benevolence dependability, and self-direction thought than both the other groups. Results mainly corroborated what we have termed a Stress Reaction Value Constellation model. Adjustment difficulties encountered by immigrants in the receiving country and their survival needs may explain the specific pattern of value preferences found among immigrants.

Shulman, S.,  Seiffge-Krenke, I.,  & Walsh, S.D. (2017) Is Sexual Activity during Adolescence Good for Future Romantic Relationships? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1867-1877

Full Text: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10964-017-0699-z.pdf

Abstract

Past research has consistently shown that romantic experiences during adolescence affect the nature and quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, less is known about the role of adolescent sexual experiences in future sexual and romantic relationships. The current study examined the impact of different forms of sexual activity at age 16 (within a romantic relationship or casual encounters) on the nature and quality of sexual experiences in romantic relationships at age 23. One hundred and forty four (59.7% females) 16 year olds reported on their sexual activity within a romantic relationship or sexual encounters. In addition they reported on the quality of relationships they were involved in and their tendency to suppress emotions (included as an aspect of personality). At age 23 they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences during the past 2 years (number of short lived relationships, numbers of friends with benefits, casual sex encounters) and the quality of their romantic relationships (the duration of their longest relationship, partner support and feelings of certainty in the relationships). Findings showed that the tendency to suppress emotions was associated with lower likelihood to engage in casual sex at age 23. However, greater sexual experience in casual encounters during adolescence was consistently longitudinally associated with different forms of casual sexual encounters and short romantic involvements above and beyond the contribution of personality. In contrast, sexual activity within a romantic relationship predicted only a few indices of the quality of romantic involvement at age 23. The distinctive role of casual sexual activity and sexual activity within a romantic relationship for future sexual and romantic activities is discussed.

Barsties, L.S., Walsh, S.D., Huijts, T., Bendtsen, P., Molcho, M., Buijs, T., Vieno, A., Elgar, F.J. & Stevens, G.W.J.M (2017). Alcohol consumption among first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents in 23 countries: Testing the importance of origin and receiving country alcohol prevalence rates. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36, 769-778

 https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12624

Abstract

Introduction and Aims

This internationally comparative study examines differences in alcohol consumption between first‐ and second‐generation immigrant and native adolescents. We also investigate to what extent origin and receiving country alcohol per capita consumption (APCC) rates and proportions of heavy episodic drinkers (HED) are associated with immigrant adolescents’ alcohol consumption.

Design and Methods

We used cross‐sectional survey data from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School‐aged Children study. Applying multilevel regression analyses, we investigated the lifetime frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness in 69 842 13‐ to 15‐year‐olds in 23 receiving countries, with immigrants from over 130 origin countries (82% natives, 6% first‐generation immigrants and 12% second‐generation immigrants).

Results

The lifetime frequency of alcohol use was higher among natives than among first‐ and second‐generation immigrants, while no differences were found between the latter two. Lifetime drunkenness was more frequent among first‐generation immigrants than among natives and second‐generation immigrants. Higher origin country APCC and HED were associated with more frequent lifetime alcohol use and drunkenness among immigrant adolescents. Cross‐level interactions revealed that for lifetime frequency of alcohol use, the origin country HED effects were stronger for first‐ than for second‐generation immigrant adolescents. Further, especially for first‐generation immigrants, a higher receiving country HED was related to lower lifetime frequencies of alcohol use and drunkenness.

Discussion and Conclusions

Our results suggest differences in lifetime frequencies of alcohol use and drunkenness between natives and first‐ and second‐generation immigrant adolescents. Origin country APCC and HED seem to affect immigrant adolescents’ alcohol consumption differently than receiving country APCC and HED.

Tartakovsky, E. & Walsh, S.D. (2018) Value preferences of Social Workers. Social Work, 63, 115-124

https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/swy007

Abstract

The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person–environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

Devries, K., Knight, L., Petzold, M.,  Merrill, K.G., Maxwell, L., Williams, A., Cappa, C., Chan, K.L., Garcia-Moreno, C., Hollis, N., Kress, H., Peterman, A., Walsh, S.D., Kishor, S., Guedes, A., Bott, S., Butrón, B., Watts, C., Abrahams, N. (2018) Who perpetrates violence against children? A systematic analysis of age and sex specific data. BMJ Pediatrics Open, 2:e000180. 

doi: 10.1136/bmjpo-2017-000180

Abstract

Objective

The epidemiology of violence against children is likely to differ substantially by sex and age of the victim and the perpetrator. Thus far, investment in effective prevention strategies has been hindered by lack of clarity in the burden of childhood violence across these dimensions. We produced the first age-specific and sex-specific prevalence estimates by perpetrator type for physical, sexual and emotional violence against children globally.

Design

We used random effects meta-regression to estimate prevalence. Estimates were adjusted for relevant quality covariates, variation in definitions of violence and weighted by region-specific, age-specific and sex-specific population data to ensure estimates reflect country population structures.

Data sources

Secondary data from 600 population or school-based representative datasets and 43 publications obtained via systematic literature review, representing 13 830 estimates from 171 countries.

Eligibility criteria for selecting studies

Estimates for recent violence against children aged 0–19 were included.

Results

The most common perpetrators of physical and emotional violence for both boys and girls across a range of ages are household members, with prevalence often surpassing 50%, followed by student peers. Children reported experiencing more emotional than physical violence from both household members and students. The most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls aged 15–19 years are intimate partners; however, few data on other perpetrators of sexual violence against children are systematically collected internationally. Few age-specific and sex-specific data are available on violence perpetration by schoolteachers; however, existing data indicate high prevalence of physical violence from teachers towards students. Data from other authority figures, strangers, siblings and other adults are limited, as are data on neglect of children.

Conclusions

Without further investment in data generation on violence exposure from multiple perpetrators for boys and girls of all ages, progress towards Sustainable Development Goals 4, 5 and 16 may be slow. Despite data gaps, evidence shows violence from household members, peers in school and for girls, from intimate partners, should be prioritised for prevention.

Walsh, S.D., Kolobov, T., Reiz, Y., Boniel-Nissim, M. Tessler, R & Harel-Fisch, Y. (2018). The role of identity and psychosomatic symptoms as mediating the relationship between discrimination and risk behaviors among immigrant adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 64, 34-47

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.01.004

Abstract

The study examines psychosomatic symptoms, and host and heritage identities as mediators of the relationship between discrimination and aggressive behavior and substance use. Israeli data from the 2013-14 Health Behaviors of School-aged Children study included a representative sample of 1503 first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents aged 11–17 years (45.2% male) from the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia in Israel. Structural equation modeling, controlling for age, gender, family affluence and immigrant generation, showed different pathways for the two groups. For FSU-heritage adolescents, the relationship between discrimination and aggressive behavior and substance use was partially mediated by psychosomatic symptoms. Lower host and heritage identities also predicted psychosomatic symptoms. For Ethiopian-heritage adolescents, the relationship between discrimination and outcomes was fully mediated by psychosomatic symptoms and a weaker host identity. Results support an externalizing model, whereby discrimination leads to a weaker host identity and increased psychosomatic symptoms, associated with substance use and aggressive behavior.

Walsh, S.D., Kolobov, T. & Harel-Fisch, Y. (2018). Social Capital as a Moderator of the Relationship between Perceived Discrimination and Alcohol and Cannabis Use among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Adolescents in Israel Frontiers in Psychology

doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01556

Abstract

Literature highlights the relationship between perceived discrimination and frequency and severity of alcohol and cannabis use. One mechanism for explaining this is the nature of perceived discrimination as a potentially traumatic interpersonal stressor, which can lead to the depletion of social and personal resources. Within a Recovery Capital (RC) framework, the current study explores whether the existence of social capital in the form of parental monitoring, friend and teacher support can buffer the relationship between perceived discrimination and alcohol and cannabis use among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents, by replenishing the depleted resources. The study included a representative sample of 8,598 students in Israel, aged 11–18, from the Health Behaviors of School Aged Children (HBSC) 2013–2014 data: 1503 immigrant adolescents from the Former Soviet Union [FSU] (N = 955) and Ethiopia (N = 548) and 7086 non-immigrants. Results confirmed that perceived discrimination was positively related to substance use; all three forms of social capital were negatively related to alcohol and cannabis use and moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and substance use, with the exception of friend support in the case of alcohol use. When all three social capital measures were included together, the adult social capital measures were significant predictors of substance use. Results suggest that levels of social capital, especially as provided by parents and teachers, can help young people, both immigrant and majority group adolescents, to cope with perceived discrimination.

Madjar, N., Walsh S.D., Harel-Fisch, Y. (2018). Suicidal ideation and behaviors within the school context: Perceived teacher, peer and parental support. Psychiatry Research, 269, 185-190

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.08.045

Abstract

School-related factors have been found to be associated with adolescents’ suicidal ideation and behaviors, including teacher and peer support. Research has tended to ignore the nested nature of school-related data, which may be critical in this context. The current study implemented a multi-level approach on data from the 2013–14 Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC-WHO) Israeli survey among high school children (N = 4241; 56% female). Participants completed measures of teacher-, peer-, and parental-support (coded reversely from 1 = high to 5 = low), and suicidal ideation and behaviors in the last 12 months. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM), controlling for gender and age, revealed that classroom-level teachers’ support was significantly related to students’ suicidal ideation and behaviors (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.20–2.44; OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.04–1.86; respectively), whereas parental (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.40–1.75; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30–1.55; respectively) and peer support (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.12–1.31; OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02–1.21; respectively) were significant at the individual-level. The school environment can play a significant role in reducing risk for suicidal ideation and behaviors. Findings can inform future research and practice in planning and implementing evidence-based intervention programs within schools.

Bruckauf, Z. & Walsh, S.D. (2018). Adolescents' multiple and individual risk behaviors: Examining the link with high sugar consumption across 26 industrialised countries. Social Science and Medicine, 216, 133-141

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.08.029Get 

Abstract

 

Rationale

Despite the public health importance and policy relevance, no cross-national studies using large representative samples of adolescents have examined the relationship between high sugar consumption and involvement in risk behaviors.

Objective

The current study examines the relationship between high sugar consumption, in the form of sweets and chocolates and non-diet soft drinks, and involvement in peer violence and substance use. It also examines whether any such relationship is moderated by low socio-economic status (SES) and psychological well-being.

Method

The study included representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year olds in 26 countries (N = 137,284) using data from the Health Behaviors in School Aged Children (HBSC) 2013-14 study. The analysis involved multivariate logistic regression to predict involvement in both individual risk behaviors (physical fighting, bullying, cigarette use, alcohol use, and drunkenness) and multiple risk.

Results

This study showed strong and consistent relationships between high sugar consumption and multiple and individual risk behaviors across 26 countries. With the exception of few countries, this relationship did not vary by family SES and adolescents' psychological health measured through psychosomatic health and life satisfaction, which had strong independent associations with multiple and individual risk behaviors. In the majority of countries, the association between high sugar consumption and multiple risk behavior was driven to a greater extent by the sugary drinks rather than sweets.

Conclusions

Findings suggest that unhealthy nutrition such as the intake of large quantities of sugary drinks and sweets and chocolates could be seen as a "red flag" signaling potential involvement in multiple risk behaviors.

Elgar, F.J, Donnelly, P.D., Michaelson, V., Gariepy, G., Riehm, K.E., Walsh, S.D. & Pickett, W. (2018) Corporal punishment bans and physical fighting in adolescents: an ecological study of 88 countries. BMJ Open. 8:e021616

doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2018-021616

Abstract

Objective To examine the association between corporal punishment bans and youth violence at an international level.

Design Ecological study of low-income to high-income 88 countries.

Setting School-based health surveys of students.

Participants 403 604 adolescents.

Interventions National corporal punishment bans.

Primary outcome measure Age-standardised prevalence of frequent physical fighting (ie, 4+ episodes in the previous year) for male and female adolescents in each country.

Results Frequent fighting was more common in males (9.9%, 95% CI 9.1% to 10.7%) than females (2.8%, 95% CI 2.5% to 3.1%) and varied widely between countries, from 0.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 0.9%) in Costa Rican females to 34.8% (95% CI 34.7 to 35.0) in Samoan males. Compared with 20 countries with no ban, the group of 30 countries with full bans (in schools and in the home) experienced 69% the rate of fighting in males and 42% in females. Thirty-eight countries with partial bans (in schools but not in the home) experienced less fighting in females only (56% the rate found in countries without bans).

Conclusions Country prohibition of corporal punishment is associated with less youth violence. Whether bans precipitated changes in child discipline or reflected a social milieu that inhibits youth violence remains unclear due to the study design and data limitations. However, these results support the hypothesis that societies that prohibit the use of corporal punishment are less violent for youth to grow up in than societies that have not.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

Dr. Rotem Leshem

 

Dr. Revital Naor-Ziv

Glicksohn, J., Golan-Smooha, H., Naor-Ziv, R., Aluja, A., & Zuckerman, M. (2018). Uncovering the structure of personality, with a focus on the ZKA-PQ.  International Journal of Personality Psychology, 4, 13-19.

Full Text: https://ijpp.rug.nl/article/view/31084/28391

Abstract

Objective: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire provides scores for the five dimensions of the Alternative 5, namely Extraversion, Neuroticism, Sensation Seeking, Aggressiveness, and Activity.  What is the degree of interdependence among these five traits (dimensions) of the ZKA-PQ? What do we know about the internal structure of the multidimensional space defined by the Alternative 5?  Method: To address these questions, we employ a multiway classification of our 460 participants, using independent median splits along these five dimensions, resulting in a partitioning of the dimensional space into its 25 (= 32) sectors. This results in a multiway frequency table that we analyze using the log-linear model.  Results: The Alternative 5 defines a multidimensional space wherein all these combinations (profiles) do exist—hence providing testimony to the adequacy of this conceptualization. In our two-dimensional plots, we see both the non-homogeneity of personality space and areas in which personality types might well be found.   Conclusions: The contribution of a log-linear model here is to go beyond these surface-level, two-way relationships, and to take into account the higher-order interactions present in the model.  How to relate the complexity of the analysis (model) while achieving an understanding of the nature of this personality space is worthy of further study.

Prof. Galit Nahari

Prof. Tomer Einat

 

Prof. Natti Ronel 

Bonny-Noach, H. & Ronel, N. (2018). Everyday substance insecurity among homeless injection drug users in Israel's largest open drug scene. Journal of Drug Issues, 48(4), 645–656

https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042618791261

Abstract

Limited attention has been given to Homeless Injection Drug Users (HIDUs) perceived need for illegal substances. This study assessed self-perceived illegal drug need in HIDUs based on their experiences. Observations and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 HIDUs and with four treatment professionals. The findings revealed three findings concerning the unique experiences and perceptions of HIDUs: (a) Everyday Substance Need caused fear and anxiety, (b) Substance Need was experienced as more urgent than basic survival needs, and (c) HIDU participants attributed misunderstanding and denial of Substance Need to the authorities. It was found that HIDUs suffer from “Substance Insecurity,” which may be defined as the uncertain availability of quality substances (or their substitutes) and uncertain ability to acquire substances/substitutes and safe injection equipment in socially acceptable (or not) ways. Increased awareness of Substance Insecurity for HIDUs as a Substance Security First (SSF) model should be adopted.