פרסומים אחרונים

(שמות החוקרים לפי סדר א"ב)

 

פרופ' משה בן סימון

 

Edri, O., & Bensimon, M. (2019). The role of music among prisoners and prison staff: A qualitative research study. European Journal of Criminology, 16(6), 633-651

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1477370818775295

Abstract

Music is an integral part of every subculture, including that of prisons. However, no research has yet examined the meaning of music for prisoners and prison staff. The present research examined the role of music in the world of prisoners in Israel and how prison staff experience it. Content analysis of interviews with ten convicted prisoners and nine prison staff members indicated four central themes: the different ways prisoners consume and are exposed to music; the role of music in provoking positive and negative feelings; the role of music in the relationships among inmates – closeness and conflicts; and the role of music in the relationships between prisoners and prison staff, particularly in terms of prison regulation of music consumption.

 

ד"ר קרן גואטה

 

Gueta, K., Gamliel, S., & Ronel, N. (2019). “Weak is the new strong”: Gendered meanings of recovery from substance abuse among male prisoners participating in narcotic anonymous meetings. Men and Masculinities, DOI 1097184X19849449

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1097184X19849449

Abstract

Much of what has been written about prison masculinity has focused on the hypermasculine climate of prisons that rewards aggression and the concealment of vulnerability. However, the findings of more recent studies have indicated a more varied ideal of masculinity in this environment. The present research examined how inmates construct and understand masculinity within the domain of reformatory intervention. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed on fourteen transcribed interviews with inmates who participated in Narcotics Anonymous (NA). The results indicated that hypermasculinity ideals hindered the participants’ ability to apply the tenets of NA that threatened their masculine identity, such as admitting powerlessness. However, they sought to negotiate these threats by employing three main discursive strategies. First, they affirmed hegemonic masculinity notions by presenting themselves as pragmatic agents, offsetting criticism of their submission to higher authorities, constructing recovery as a masculine act, and othering drug-using men. Second, they reformulated ideas of masculinity by adapting the concept to include feminine notions of caring and admitting vulnerability, in line with their NA experience. Third, they rejected their former ideologies and their current dominant localized sociocultural constructions of hypermasculinity that stigmatized them by noting the superiority of NA as a space of support, egalitarian relationships between inmates, and trust relationships with prison staff. By focusing on the dynamic of stigma, marginalization, and masculinity, the research informs both the theoretical understanding of masculinity and the development of reformatory interventions in prison.

 

פרופ' יוסי גליקסון

Glicksohn, J., Berkovich-Ohana, A., Mauro, F., & Ben-Soussan, T. D. (2019).  Individual EEG alpha profiles are gender-dependent and indicate subjective experiences in whole-body perceptual deprivation.  Neuropsychologia, 125, 81-92

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.01.018

Abstract

We use a unique environment of Whole Body Perceptual Deprivation (WBPD) to induce an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in our participants, and employ online EEG recording. We present individual EEG alpha profiles, and show how these data can be analyzed at the individual level. Our goal is to investigate to what degree subjective experience matches EEG alpha profile, and in particular, the various alpha hemispheric asymmetries observed in the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Specifically, we consider positive (frontal L < R) or negative (frontal L > R) affect; a more verbal (L > R) or a more imagistic (R > L) mode of thinking; and a more trancelike (frontal > parietal) or more reflective (frontal < parietal) state of consciousness. Our results indicate that the individual alpha profiles are reflected in individual differences in subjective experience. However, the alpha profiles are confounded with the gender of the participant. Specifically, there is a predominant R > L asymmetry found for male participants, and a predominant L > R asymmetry found for female participants.

 

פרופ' סופי וולש

Tartakovsky, E. & Walsh, S.D. (2019) Are some immigrants more equal than others? Applying a threat-benefit model to understanding the appraisal of different immigrant groups by the local population. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2019.1565402

Abstract

The study examines the applicability of the Threat-Benefit Model as a means of conceptualising and measuring appraisal of diverse immigrant groups by a local population. A representative sample of adult Jewish Israelis (n = 1600, 52% women, mean age = 44.2) was used to examine locals’ attitudes toward four groups of immigrants: diaspora immigrants from the Former Soviet Union, Ethiopia and western countries (the US, UK, and France) and asylum seekers. The results obtained indicated that the patterns of appraisal of asylum seekers and diaspora immigrants by the local population differed substantially. Appraisal of asylum seekers was characterised by multi-domain negativity, which, in several domains, was not consistent with the group’s socio-demographic characteristics. Contrary to that, appraisal of diaspora immigrants demonstrated variability across different domains, which mainly coincided with the groups’ socio-demographic characteristics. Socio-demographic characteristics of members of the receiving society explained only a small proportion of variance in their appraisal of immigrants, thus suggesting a high level of societal consensus in appraising different immigrant groups. However, a lower level of religiosity was associated with a higher appraisal of most immigrant groups as beneficial and their lower appraisal as threatening for the receiving society. The present study advances scientific knowledge by shedding light on the processes related to intergroup relations in the context of immigration.

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Yacknich, L., Pounko, I. & Walsh, S.D., (2019). The hidden matrix: Perspectives of youth and their parents on immigration and youth delinquent behavior Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology

DOI.org/10.1177/0022022119832128

Abstract

Immigrant youth delinquency may be associated with developmental, familial, social, and immigration-specific factors; however, scarce studies have examined the perspectives of both parents and their children as to the reasons for involvement in delinquent behavior. This study examines the extent to which immigration-related stressors may be associated with delinquent behavior of immigrant adolescents from the Former Soviet Union in Israel, from the perspectives of both young people and their parents. In-depth interviews with 10 male delinquent immigrant mid-late adolescents, aged 16 to 21 years, and their parents (eight mothers and two fathers) were conducted (N = 20). Phenomenological analysis highlighted the immigration experience as a hidden matrix within which dynamics associated with delinquency evolved. These dynamics involved situational factors (age, financial hardships, and social norms related to child-rearing), social factors (peer pressure and wish to be socially accepted), familial factors (stress experienced by the family, parental unavailability, and insufficient parental capabilities), and personality factors (sensation-seeking, desire for self-direction, emotion dysregulation, weak character, and inborn inclination to problematic behavior). While few participants directly address the immigration process, it can be considered the backdrop or matrix within which these factors are evolving. Implications for prevention on personal, familial, and society levels are discussed.

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Walsh, S.D., Dohrenwend, B., Levav, I., Weiser, M. & Gal, G. Early adulthood psychiatric diagnoses and the subsequent risk of life-time incarceration: A cohort study Psychological Medicine 

 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719002009 

 Abstract

Background

The association between incarceration and psychiatric disorders has been noted. Yet, existing studies are cross-sectional or examine the risk of recidivism, which has limited the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders as a risk factor for incarceration. To overcome this limitation, this study used a prospective cohort to examine whether psychiatric diagnoses in early adulthood predicted incarceration throughout a 30-year follow-up. It tested the association between psychiatric diagnoses with future incarcerations, their number and durations, controlling for education and ethnic status.

Methods

This study merged data from three sources in Israel: a prospective 10-year birth cohort study of young adults aged 25–34, conducted in the 1980s (N = 4914) that included a psychiatric interview; data from the Prison Service, including the cause, number and duration of incarcerations; and from the Vital Statistics Registry on death records.

Results

Multivariate analysis showed that substance-use disorders, antisocial personality and lower levels of education predicted future incarceration, their number and maximum duration. The remainder diagnoses were not significantly associated with future incarceration.

Conclusions

Results limited the prediction of future incarcerations to persons diagnosed with substance use and antisocial personality, and do not support an independent predictive association between additional psychiatric diagnoses and future incarceration.

 

 

ד"ר רותם לשם

Leshem, R., & Weisburd, D. (2019). Epigenetics and Hot Spots of Crime: Rethinking the Relationship between Genetics and Criminal Behavior. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 35(2), 186-204.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986219828924

Abstract

There is a growing recognition of the importance of micro-geographic areas in the generation of crime problems. While many studies show that crime is heavily concentrated at crime hot spots, scholars have only begun to examine how living in such places affects human development. We point to an unexplored component of the relationship between living in a hot spot, and crime and violence. We argue that crime hot spots function as violent and stressful environments and thus have long-term, possibly intergenerational, impacts on brain development. It is proposed that living in such places may be associated with DNA methylation profiles related to aggressive behavior. In this context, the study of the epigenetic influences of crime hot spots has tremendous potential for advancing our understanding of crime and violence, as well as generating new approaches for crime prevention.

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Leshem, R., & Yefet, M. (2019). Does impulsivity converge distinctively with inhibitory control? Disentangling the cold and hot aspects of inhibitory control. Personality and Individual differences, 145, 44-51.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.03.003

Abstract

Trait impulsivity incorporates deficits in cognitive processes that can be viewed as resulting from deficiencies in executive functions, particularly inhibitory control. To better understand the relationship between impulsivity and inhibitory control, it is useful to divide inhibitory control into cognitive (cold) and emotional (hot) variants, mediated by differential neural networks. In this study, we aimed to examine impulsivity-related differences in inhibitory control in response to non-emotional versus emotional stimuli. We further examined impulsivity-related differences in the ability to maintain attention during a continuous and repetitive activity, based on the same distinction between cold and hot categories. To evaluate cold and hot variants of inhibition and attentional processes in relation to trait impulsivity, we used two types of go/no-go tasks, non-emotional and emotional. Trait impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Results showed that high-impulsivity individuals were less able to exert both cold and hot variants of inhibitory control. When cognitive performance involved emotional stimuli, high-impulsivity participants were less prone to lapses of attention and better able to maintain attention. In conclusion, trait impulsivity was manifested differently when emotional stimuli were involved, especially in terms of the attentional component. A division into affective and cognitive components of impulsivity is proposed.

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De Fano, A., Leshem R., & Ben-Soussan, T.D. (2019). Creating an internal environment of cognitive and psycho-emotional well-being through external movement-based environment: an overview of Quadrato Motor Training. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(12), 2160.

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122160

Abstract

In this overview, we discuss the internal and external environmental factors associated with cognitive and psycho-emotional well-being in the context of physical activity and Mindful Movement. Our key argument is that improved cognitive and emotional functions associated with mental well-being can be achieved by an external, Mindful Movement-based environment training called Quadrato Motor Training (QMT). QMT is a structured sensorimotor training program aimed at improving coordination, attention, and emotional well-being through behavioral, electrophysiological, neuroanatomical, and molecular changes. In accordance with this argument, we first describe the general neurobiological mechanisms underpinning emotional states and emotion regulation. Next, we review the relationships between QMT, positive emotional state, and increased emotion regulation, and discuss the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these relationships. We consider the relationships between motion, emotion, and cognition, and highlight the need for integrated training paradigms involving these three trajectories. Such training paradigms provide cognitively engaging exercises to improve emotion regulation, which in turn affects adaptive behaviors. Finally, we address the broader implications of improving cognitive and emotional functioning through Mindful Movement training for environmental research and public health.

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Leshem, R., van Lieshout, P.H.H.M., Ben-David, S., & Ben-David, B.M. (2019). Does emotion matter? The role of alexithymia in violent recidivism: a systematic literature review. Criminal Behaviour and  Mental Health, 29, 94-110.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/cbm.2110

abstract

Background

Several variables have been evidenced for their association with violent reoffending. Resultant interventions have been suggested, yet the rate of recidivism remains high. Alexithymia, characterised by deficits in emotion processing and verbal expression, might interact with these other risk factors to affect outcomes.

Aim

Our goal was to examine the role of alexithymia as a possible moderator of risk factors for violent offender recidivism. Our hypothesis was that, albeit with other risk factors, alexithymia increases the risk of violent reoffending.

Method

We conducted a systematic literature review, using terms for alexithymia and violent offending and their intersection.

Results

(a) No study that directly tests the role of alexithymia in conjunction with other potential risk factors for recidivism and actual violent recidivism was uncovered. (b) Primarily alexithymia researchers and primarily researchers into violence have separately found several clinical features in common between aspects of alexithymia and violence, such as impulsivity (total n = 24 studies). (c) Other researchers have established a relationship between alexithymia and both dynamic and static risk factors for violent recidivism (n = 16 studies).

Conclusion

Alexithymia may be a possible moderator of risk of violent offence recidivism. Supplementing offenders' rehabilitation efforts with assessments of alexithymia may assist in designing individually tailored interventions to promote desistance among violent offenders.

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Leshem, R. Paoletti, P., Piervincenzi, C., Carducci, F., Mallio, C.A., Errante, Y., Quattrocchi, C.C., & Ben-Soussan, T.D. Inward versus reward: White matter pathways in extraversion. Personality Neuroscience, 2, 1-9. Cambridge University Press.

https://doi.org/10.1017/pen.2019.6

Abstract

The trait of extraversion is one of the longest-standing domains that captures the social dimension of personality and can potentially explain the covariation of a wide variety of behaviors. To date, there is a growing recognition that human behavior should be specified not only through the psychological mechanisms underlying each trait but also through their underlying neurobehavioral systems. While imaging studies have revealed important initial insights into the structural and functional neural correlates of extraversion, current knowledge about the relationships between extraversion and brain structures is still rather limited, especially with regard to the relationship between extraversion and white matter (WM). In this study, we aimed to investigate WM microstructure in extraversion in greater depth. Thirty-five healthy volunteers (21 women; mean age 35) underwent magnetic resonance imaging, as a part of a larger project aimed at investigating the longitudinal effect of motor training. WM integrity was assessed using the diffusion tensor imaging technique combining multiple diffusion tensor measures. Extraversion was assessed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Voxelwise correlation analyses between fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivities, and radial diffusivities maps and extraversion score showed decreased connectivity in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and forceps major among individuals who had high extraversion ratings. In conclusion, individual differences in extraversion may reflect differential organization of the WM tracts connecting frontal cortex, temporal, and occipital areas, which are related to socioemotional and control functions.

 

פרופ' גלית נהרי

Nahari, G., & Nisin, Z. (2019). Digging further into the Speech of Liars: Future Research Prospects in Verbal Lie Detection, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10:56.   

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00056/full

במאמר דעה זה מעודדים המחברים קו מחקר חדש, בהשראת גישת פוטנציאל האימות (Verifiability Approach), לזיהוי עקבות של אסטרטגיות רמייה בדברי חשודים, ומציעים שתי  התפתחויות תיאורטיות חדשות הנגזרות מקו זה.

Abstract

The field of verbal lie detection has grown rapidly in the past decade. Derived by the assumption that lies have different content patterns than do truths, research in this area promotes searching for content criteria to detect them. One prime content-based indicator for deception detection, which stems from the Reality Monitoring (RM) theory (1), is richness in detail. According to RM, truthful memories of actual events originate in perceptual experience and are embedded in the context of time and space. As such, they are expected to include more spatial and temporal contextual attributes (i.e., locations, spatial arrangement of people and objects, times, duration and sequence of events) and perceptual attributes (i.e., what the individual felt, tasted, smelled, heard, or saw when the event took place) than do false memories, which originate in self-generated thought or imagination. Derived from this prediction, the traditional use of richness in detail as an indicator of deception is based on the number of perceptual and contextual details in the interviewee's accounts. However, as a memory source-monitoring theory, RM does not take into consideration the intention of liars to deceive and consequently cannot explain the full scope of richness in detail in the field of deception (2). In contrast to false memories, where the individual has no intention to deceive but wrongly believes that his/her memory of an event that never happened is truthful, fabricated memories are an outcome of manipulation [and have thus been labeled “self-manipulated memories”; (2)]. Liars frequently attempt to manipulate their fabricated accounts to make them seem truthful (35), for example by intentionally adding false perceptual and contextual details (67). Affecting the quantity of the details in their fabricated accounts, such strategic manipulations reduce the diagnostic efficacy of the richness in detailindicator. Yet, in the current paper, we aim to show that the same strategies leave traces on the quality of details. Therefore, we propose that to maximize the potential utility of the richness in detail indicator, it is necessary to dig deeper into the speech of liars, particularly by looking for traces of deception strategies found in the quality of the details. In fact, the Verifiability Approach [VA; (48)] applies this notion.

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Nahari, G., Ashkenazi, T., Fisher, R.P., Granhag, P.A., Hershkovitz, I., Masip, J., Meijer, E., Nisin, Z., Sarid, N., Taylor, P.J, Verschuere, B., Vrij, A. (2019). “Language of Lies”: Urgent issues and prospects in verbal lie detection research. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 24, 1- 23

 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/lcrp.12148

Abstract

Since its introduction into the field of deception detection, the verbal channel has become a rapidly growing area of research. The basic assumption is that liars differ from truth tellers in their verbal behaviour, making it possible to classify them by inspecting their verbal accounts. However, as noted in conferences and in private communication between researchers, the field of verbal lie detection faces several challenges that merit focused attention. The first author therefore proposed a workshop with the mission of promoting solutions for urgent issues in the field. Nine researchers and three practitioners with experience in credibility assessments gathered for 3 days of discussion at Bar‐Ilan University (Israel) in the first international verbal lie detection workshop. The primary session of the workshop took place the morning of the first day. In this session, each of the participants had up to 10 min to deliver a brief message, using just one slide. Researchers were asked to answer the question: ‘In your view, what is the most urgent, unsolved question/issue in verbal lie detection?’ Similarly, practitioners were asked: ‘As a practitioner, what question/issue do you wish verbal lie detection research would address?’ The issues raised served as the basis for the discussions that were held throughout the workshop. The current paper first presents the urgent, unsolved issues raised by the workshop group members in the main session, followed by a message to researchers in the field, designed to deliver the insights, decisions, and conclusions resulting from the discussions.

 

פרופ' תומר עינת

Dagan Moshe, K. & Einat, T. (2019). Anaconda, Jet fuel, white robes, and miaow miaow: The argot of women prisoners. The Prison Journal, 99(6), 683-705

.  https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0032885519877380

Abstract

This qualitative study based on research conducted in a prison facility for women in Israel aims to establish the existence of an argot among women prisoners and to analyze how it reflects their subculture. This research found that the argot focuses on seven different aspects of prison life: same-sex sexual relations, loyalty, prisoner status, drugs, relations between mentally stable prisoners and mentally ill prisoners, attitudes toward the prison staff, and threats and violence. The argot concerning gender-oriented distresses was found the most common, and the authors concluded that this aspect is the most stressful and threatening in the prisoner subculture

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Einat, T. & Davidian, M. (2019). There is no sincerer love than the love of food: The Meaning of Food and its uses in Prison Subculture. European Journal of Criminology, 16(2), 127-146

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1477370818769258

Abstract

This study examines the ways in which the prison service handles food and analyses the uses and meanings of food in prison subculture. Using semi-structured interviews and content analysis, data were collected and analysed from 20 ex-prisoners who were incarcerated in maximum-security prison facilities for a period of three years or more. Our main findings are that, according to the interviewees’ testimonies, (a) the Israel Prison Service (IPS) makes manipulative and abusive use of food in order to perpetuate its power; and (b) food serves as a means to determine the relationship between prisoners and staff, govern social status or rejection in the prison subculture, or pass the time. We have four main conclusions. First, the IPS nutrition policy differentiates and discriminates among prisoners and clearly violates the basic human rights of prisoners, thus suggesting an abuse of power. Second, the IPS’s use of food as a tool for punishing or rewarding introduces and perpetuates inequalities and encourages the illegal prison trade in food and food products. Third, cooking in prison, especially in light of its illegality, constitutes a symbolic expression of resistance to the institution and a meaningful way of coping with boredom. Lastly, food and its possession in prison serve as very powerful tools for constructing and perpetuating exploitation and unequal power relations among prisoners.

Although the study suffers from two limitations – the validity of the adolescents’ responses and the small sample size – its findings lead us to propose that an improvement in the food products that are accessible to prisoners and permission to cook in their cells are inexpensive and legitimate means of bettering both the prisoners’ quality of life and the social atmosphere in prison.

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Vaisman Cantini, D. & Einat, T. Mental health outcomes for female inmates without a mental disorder: Imprisonment and post-release effects of confinement with women with a mental illness. The Prison Journal  (In Press).

 

פרופ' נתי רונאל

 

Gueta, K., Gamliel, S., & Ronel, N. (2019). “Weak is the new strong”: Gendered meanings of recovery from substance abuse among male prisoners participating in narcotic anonymous meetings. Men and Masculinities, DOI 1097184X19849449

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1097184X19849449

Abstract

Much of what has been written about prison masculinity has focused on the hypermasculine climate of prisons that rewards aggression and the concealment of vulnerability. However, the findings of more recent studies have indicated a more varied ideal of masculinity in this environment. The present research examined how inmates construct and understand masculinity within the domain of reformatory intervention. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed on fourteen transcribed interviews with inmates who participated in Narcotics Anonymous (NA). The results indicated that hypermasculinity ideals hindered the participants’ ability to apply the tenets of NA that threatened their masculine identity, such as admitting powerlessness. However, they sought to negotiate these threats by employing three main discursive strategies. First, they affirmed hegemonic masculinity notions by presenting themselves as pragmatic agents, offsetting criticism of their submission to higher authorities, constructing recovery as a masculine act, and othering drug-using men. Second, they reformulated ideas of masculinity by adapting the concept to include feminine notions of caring and admitting vulnerability, in line with their NA experience. Third, they rejected their former ideologies and their current dominant localized sociocultural constructions of hypermasculinity that stigmatized them by noting the superiority of NA as a space of support, egalitarian relationships between inmates, and trust relationships with prison staff. By focusing on the dynamic of stigma, marginalization, and masculinity, the research informs both the theoretical understanding of masculinity and the development of reformatory interventions in prison.

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Diamond - Bensimon, S., & Ronel, N. (2019). From bondage to liberation: The case of Holocaust survivor Eva Mozes-Kor's forgiveness. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 28(8), 996-1016. 

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10926771.2018.1468376

ABSTRACT

Forgiveness within the context of the aftermath of the Holocaust has been the focus of a large body of philosophic, ethical, and theological scholarly literature. However, studies applying a more social psychological lens, focusing on the healing aspects of forgiveness for Holocaust survivors, have, to date, been extremely scarce. This is despite extensive research indicating that forgiveness is effective in helping to reduce anger, stress, and despair and in cultivating an overall sense of well-being following man-made traumatic experiences. The present study aims to establish what can be learnt from a close and methodical exploration of the case of Eva Mozes-Kor, a child Holocaust survivor and a “Mengele twin,” who extended forgiveness to her direct perpetrators. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was implemented through an in-depth analysis and interpretation of data collected through a direct interview with Eva and through published material of her personal accounts. Findings indicate that this case is unique not only in its remarkability but also in the human process it reveals: a life-changing conversion with the lasting effects of high levels of interpersonal, intrapersonal, and spiritual integration. These findings support and expand the emerging theory of positive victimology and highlight the need for further research.