פרסומים אחרונים

ד"ר יעל אידיסיס

Idisis, Y. & Edoute, A. (2017). Attribution of blame and severity in rape as a function of the victim's behavior before, during and after the rape among therapists and non-therapists. International Review of Victimology, Volume: 23 issue: 3, page(s): 257-274

https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758017711980

Abstract

This article examines Wolf’s hypothesis of modular judgment in the context of rape myths and attribution of blame to rape victims. Modular judgment was operationalized using blame schemata suited to judgment of everyday aggression. Each of 88 female participants, of whom 29 were sexual trauma survivor therapists, 29 were sex offender therapists and 30 were non-therapists, was presented with written descriptions of 16 rapes, which included information regarding the victim’s behaviors before (her prior sexual experience), during (the kind and the degree of the resistance she exhibited) and after the rape (meeting or not meeting with the attacker). Dependent variables were attribution of blame to the survivor, attribution of blame to the attacker and judgments regarding severity of the rape. As expected, the therapists attributed less blame to the survivors and more blame to the attacker, and judged the rapes as slightly more severe than did non-therapist participants. For all participants in this study, the survivor’s behavior after the rape carried the greatest weight regarding attribution of responsibility to her. These results are discussed in terms of the theories of modular judgment and defensive attribution, and the just world theory. We recommend further investigations with regard to the perceived connection between survivors’ behaviors after a rape and blame attribution.

 

ד"ר משה בן סימון

Lozon, J., & Bensimon, M. (2017). A systematic review on the functions of rap among gangs. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(11), 1243-1261.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X15618430

Abstract

Although the field of gangs is well studied, information regarding the way gangs may use or misuse music for different needs is sparse. The aim of this systematic review is to gather descriptive and empirical information to ascertain the important roles rap music possesses within gang life. This review suggests five main functions of rap used within gangs with an emphasis on the subgenre of gangsta rap. First, rap facilitates antisocial behavior by reinforcing such messages in its lyrics. Second, its deviant lyrics serve as a reflection of the violent reality experienced in many urban ghetto communities. Third, it operates as a means for constructing individual and collective identity, as well as resistance identity. Fourth, it functions as an educating force by teaching its members how to act and respond in the urban ghetto. Finally, rap glorifies gang norms among newcomers and successfully spreads its values to the general population.

Bensimon, M., Bodner, E., & Shrira, A. (2017). The emotional impact of national music on young and older adults differing in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Aging and Mental Health, 21(10), 1090-1098.

https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1196338

Abstract

In spite of previous evidence regarding the function of national songs as a contextual stimulus, their effect on the emotional state of older adults living with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not be been examined. Following the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, we examined the emotional effects of listening to happy national songs (songs of Independence Day) and sad national songs (Memorial Day songs) on young (N = 144, mean age = 29.4) and older adults (N = 132, mean age = 68.5). Respondents were exposed to happy or sad national songs, and completed measures of exposure to missile attacks, related PTSD symptoms, and positive and negative emotions. Sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among young adults who were lower on PTSD symptoms, but not among their older counterparts. In contrast, sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among older adults who were higher on PTSD symptoms, but not among their young counterparts. These findings support the strength and vulnerability model, as they demonstrate that relative to young adults, older adults are generally more capable to withstand negative stimuli, yet are more sensitive to negative stimuli when they suffer from chronic vulnerability, as in the case of higher level of PTSD symptoms.

Shrira, A., Ayalon, L., Bensimon, M., Bodner, E., Rosenbloom, T., & Yadid, G. (2017). Parental post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms are related to successful aging in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1-12.

https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01099

Abstract

A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring’s secondary traumatization symptoms. In Study 1, 101 adult offspring (mean age = 62.31) completed measures of parental PTSD, secondary traumatization, as well as successful aging indices – objective (medical conditions, disability and somatic symptoms) and subjective (perceptions of one’s aging). Relative to comparisons and OHS who reported that none of their parents suffered from probable PTSD, OHS who reported that their parents suffered from probable PTSD had lower scores in objective and subjective measures of successful aging. Mediation analyses showed that higher level of secondary traumatization mediated the relationship between parental PTSD and less successful aging in the offspring. Study 2 included 154 dyads of parents (mean age = 81.86) and their adult offspring (mean age = 54.48). Parents reported PTSD symptoms and offspring reported secondary traumatization and completed measures of objective successful aging. Relative to comparisons, OHS whose parent had probable PTSD have aged less successfully. Once again, offspring secondary traumatization mediated the effect. The findings suggest that parental post-traumatic reactions assessed both by offspring (Study 1) and by parents themselves (Study 2) take part in shaping the aging of the subsequent generation via reactions of secondary traumatization in the offspring. The studies also provide initial evidence that these processes can transpire even when offspring do not have probable PTSD or when controlling offspring anxiety symptoms. Our findings allude to additional behavioral and epigenetic processes that are potentially involved in the effect of parental PTSD on offspring aging, and further imply the need to develop interdisciplinary interventions aiming at promoting successful aging among offspring of traumatized parents.

Bensimon, M. (2017). Victimization in light of self-compassion: Development towards communal compassion. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 35, 44-51.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.002

Abstract

The discipline of victimology emerged and continues to develop in response to the need to analyze the phenomenology of victims of crime. In the last decade, a new trend, positive victimology, has emerged; it emphasizes the role of “positive components” in efforts to promote the rehabilitation and recovery of victims. This perspective stresses the role of society and community in acceptance, encouragement, faith, forgiveness, goodness, gratitude, and compassion towards victims. One positive healing concept that has recently been found valuable for victims' well-being is that of self-compassion. The aim of the current paper was to explore the theory of self-compassion, which was first presented by Kristin D. Neff (2003a), as it applies to the lived experience of victimization. A comprehensive review of literature indicated the presence of uncompassionate responses as central in the lived experience of victims. These components include: (a) self-judgment and self-blame; (b) loneliness and alienation; and (c) over-identification and experiential avoidance. Seeing victimization from this perspective can deepen the understanding of victims' needs to increase compassionate and reduce uncompassionate responding. The present exploration also revealed the need, in the case of victimization, to adopt the notion of communal compassion, which expands the focus from self-compassion to compassion in the community.

Edri, O., & Bensimon, M. (2018). The role of music among prisoners and prison staff: A qualitative research study. European Journal of Criminology.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370818775295

Abstract

Music is an integral part of every subculture, including that of prisons. However, no research has yet examined the meaning of music for prisoners and prison staff. The present research examined the role of music in the world of prisoners in Israel and how prison staff experience it. Content analysis of interviews with 10 convicted prisoners and 9 prison staff members indicated four central themes: the different ways prisoners consume and are exposed to music; the role of music in provoking positive and negative feelings; the role of music in the relationships among inmates – closeness and conflicts; and the role of music in the relationships between prisoners and prison staff, particularly in terms of prison regulation of music consumption.

Bensimon, M., Shaul, S., Div. S., Sandler, L., & Teitelbaum, A. (2018). Patient–centered approach in closed psychiatric wards: The curative power of relaxing music chosen by patients. Israel Journal of Psychiatry, 55(2), 55-58

Free full text  https://cdn.doctorsonly.co.il/2018/10/11_Patient-centered-Approach.pdf

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Psychiatry is changing as medicine adopts a patient-centered approach. This model of care places greater emphasis on the patients' involvement in determining the goals of their treatment and the nature of their care. This study offers a non-verbal patient-centered intervention by using relaxing music chosen by patients in a closed psychiatric ward to achieve reduction in levels of stress and psychomotor agitation.

METHOD:

Participants, patients in closed wards, entered a seclusion room whenever they showed psychomotor agitation, overwhelming stress or physical and verbal aggression. While in the seclusion room, participants in the research group (n=24) were exposed to relaxing music of their choice whereas the comparative group (n=28) did not receive any sensory stimulation. The participants filled out the Visual Analogue Scale to measure their emotional state before and after this experience while the staff filled out the Behavioral Activity Rating Scale.

RESULTS:

Results show significantly higher emotional calm and prominent reduction in psychomotor agitation among the research group in comparison with the comparative group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Relaxing music chosen by patients has a positive effect on their emotional state and behavioral activity and may therefore serve as an alternative sensory intervention before patients reach violent situations that require restraint.

ד"ר קרן גואטה

Gueta, K. (2018). The Experience of Prisoners’ Parents: A Meta‐Synthesis of Qualitative Studies. Family process57(3), 767-782

https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12312

Abstract

The parents of prisoners have long drawn the attention of researchers, due to their role in the etiology of criminality as well as the importance of their support of their offspring during and after incarceration. However, although studies have shown that the parents of prisoners experience high levels of distress, burden, and social stigma, research into their experience is only now beginning to emerge. This metasynthesis examined the limited body of qualitative research on the experience of prisoners’ parents, as an exploratory step toward advancing the understanding of their experience. Relevant terms were used to systematically search key databases. Ten small‐scale studies, which varied in focus, location, and disciplinary orientation, met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis produced four core themes, reflecting findings regarding parents’ (primarily mothers’) experience of their offspring's incarceration: parenting from a distance; the burden of care; troubled parental identity; and social reaction. Furthermore, the findings suggested a number of possible mediating factors of this experience, such as parents’ social capital and their cognitive appraisal of their offspring's criminality.  These themes imply a possible experience of “imprisonment by association” among the parents of inmates and illuminate features that may be unique to them. Given the inherent limitations regarding generalizability of a metasynthesis and the heterogeneity of the experiences of the parents represented by the articles reviewed, the findings call for future large‐scale quantitative studies to explore the challenges and therapeutic needs of parents of prisoners regarding the themes identified.

Gueta, K. (2017). A qualitative study of barriers and facilitators in treating drug use among Israeli mothers: An intersectional perspective. Social Science & Medicine187, 155-163

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.06.031

Abstract

Rationale: Despite the benefits and availability of drug treatment in Western countries, research has shown low utilisation rates, especially by mothers. Studies have indicated internal barriers (e.g., shame) and external/structural barriers (e.g., poverty) to women's utilisation of drug treatment, but little is known about the interrelated axes of marginalization that create such barriers and, even less, facilitators of treatment. A promising avenue for examining this path may be the theoretical perspective of intersectionality, which has often been used to illustrate how women's experiences are shaped by gender in conjunction with other factors, including class, age, and race. 

Objective: The purpose of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators of  drug abuse treatment among substance-abusing mothers, including practical implications. 

Methods :In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 Israeli-born and immigrant mothers known to child protection and welfare agencies. A critical feminist theoretical perspective informed by intersectionality was adopted to examine the barriers to and facilitators of their enrolment in drug treatment.

Results: Thematic analysis revealed three themes in the interrelationships of different factors and treatment utilisation. First, the threat of losing child custody was interrelated with lack of social and family support, immigration status, being post-partum, and economic hardship to shape barriers to treatment. Second, a set of coping resources originating in their marginality was interrelated with opportunity for treatment. Last, the participants suggested changes that would encourage treatment utilisation, with focus on non-judgmental referral procedures.

Conclusions: The findings indicated that barriers and facilitators are interrelated and co-constructed, reflecting the interlocking of power and oppression across the axes of class, gender, and ethnicity. Focusing on social inequality and gender in policies and research on women's drug treatment, the findings may inform the development of strategies to overcome treatment barriers.

 

פרופ' יוסי גליקסון

Time Perception and the Experience of Time When Immersed in an Altered Sensory Environment

Joseph Glicksohn1,2*Aviva Berkovich-Ohana3Federica Mauro4 and Tal D. Ben-Soussan5

https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00487

Abstract

The notion that exposure to a monotonous sensory environment could elicit reports indicating aberrant subjective experience and altered time perception is the impetus for the present report. Research has looked at the influence of exposure to such environments on time perception, reporting that the greater the environmental variation, the shorter is the time estimation obtained by the method of production. Most conditions for creating an altered sensory environment, however, have not facilitated an immersive experience, one that directly impacts both time perception and subjective experience. In this study, we invited our participants to enter a whole-body altered sensory environment for a 20-min session, wherein they were asked to relax without falling asleep. The session included white-colored illumination of the chamber with eyes closed (5 min), followed by 10 min of illuminating the room with color, after which a short report of subjective experience was collected using a brief questionnaire; this was followed by an additional 5 min of immersion in white light with closed eyes. The participants were then interviewed regarding their subjective experience, including their experience of time within the chamber. Prior to entering the chamber, the participants completed a time-production (TP) task. One group of participants then repeated the task within the chamber, at the end of the session; a second group of participants repeated the task after exiting the chamber. We shall report on changes in TP, and present data indicating that when produced time is plotted as a function of target duration, using a log–log plot, the major influence of sensory environment is on the intercept of the psychophysical function. We shall further present data indicating that for those participants reporting a marked change in time experience, such as “the sensation of time disappeared,” their TP data could not be linearized using a log–log plot, hence indicating that for these individuals there might be a “break” in the psychophysical function.

 

Intelligence and psychopathy: A study on non-incarcerated females from the normal population

Tal Ben-Yaacov &Joseph Glicksohn |Marco Tommasi (Reviewing Editor)

Full Text: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311908.2018.1429519?scroll=top&needAccess=true

Abstract

Most research on the relation between psychopathy and intelligence has been conducted with incarcerated male samples. However, psychopathic traits can be found among non-incarcerated individuals, male or female, possessing high intellectual capacities. The construct of psychopathy has been comparatively understudied in women. We hypothesized a positive correlation between interpersonal psychopathic traits and intelligence among females, whereby those non-criminal females having high scores on these traits would be more intelligent than those having low scores on these traits. We carried out a correlational analysis and group comparisons on a sample of 121 non-criminal females. Variables that were measured include the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) total score and its two subscales; the Levenson Primary and Secondary Psychopathy (LPSP) total score and its two subscales; Psychoticism (P) and intelligence measured by Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). A significant positive correlation (r = .33, p < .05) was found between LPSP-I (interpersonal affective factor) and SPM. Separate ANOVAs were conducted to compare SPM scores of the participants, when they were allocated to groups based on either the PPI or the LPSP scores. Performance of the interpersonal affective group (M = 53.32, SD = 3.45) was better than that of the two other groups (M = 50.26, SD = 3.25 for “Impulsive Antisocial”, and M = 49.37, SD = 4.67 for “non psychopathy”).

 

Glicksohn, J., Golan-Smooha, H., Naor-Ziv, R., Aluja, A., & Zuckerman, M. (2018). Uncovering the structure of personality, with a focus on the ZKA-PQ.  International Journal of Personality Psychology, 4, 13-19.

Full Text: https://ijpp.rug.nl/article/view/31084/28391

Abstract

Objective: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire provides scores for the five dimensions of the Alternative 5, namely Extraversion, Neuroticism, Sensation Seeking, Aggressiveness, and Activity.  What is the degree of interdependence among these five traits (dimensions) of the ZKA-PQ? What do we know about the internal structure of the multidimensional space defined by the Alternative 5?  Method: To address these questions, we employ a multiway classification of our 460 participants, using independent median splits along these five dimensions, resulting in a partitioning of the dimensional space into its 25 (= 32) sectors. This results in a multiway frequency table that we analyze using the log-linear model.  Results: The Alternative 5 defines a multidimensional space wherein all these combinations (profiles) do exist—hence providing testimony to the adequacy of this conceptualization. In our two-dimensional plots, we see both the non-homogeneity of personality space and areas in which personality types might well be found.   Conclusions: The contribution of a log-linear model here is to go beyond these surface-level, two-way relationships, and to take into account the higher-order interactions present in the model.  How to relate the complexity of the analysis (model) while achieving an understanding of the nature of this personality space is worthy of further study.

 

פרופ' סופי וולש

Elgar, F.J, Donnelly, P.D., Michaelson, V., Gariepy, G., Riehm, K.E., Walsh, S.D. & Pickett, W. (2018) Corporal punishment bans and physical fighting in adolescents: an ecological study of 88 countries. BMJ Open. 8:e021616.

doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2018-021616.

Abstract

Immigrant youth delinquency may be associated with developmental, familial, social, and immigration-specific factors; however, scarce studies have examined the perspectives of both parents and their children as to the reasons for involvement in delinquent behavior. This study examines the extent to which immigration-related stressors may be associated with delinquent behavior of immigrant adolescents from the Former Soviet Union in Israel, from the perspectives of both young people and their parents. In-depth interviews with 10 male delinquent immigrant mid-late adolescents, aged 16 to 21 years, and their parents (eight mothers and two fathers) were conducted (N = 20). Phenomenological analysis highlighted the immigration experience as a hidden matrix within which dynamics associated with delinquency evolved. These dynamics involved situational factors (age, financial hardships, and social norms related to child-rearing), social factors (peer pressure and wish to be socially accepted), familial factors (stress experienced by the family, parental unavailability, and insufficient parental capabilities), and personality factors (sensation-seeking, desire for self-direction, emotion dysregulation, weak character, and inborn inclination to problematic behavior). While few participants directly address the immigration process, it can be considered the backdrop or matrix within which these factors are evolving. Implications for prevention on personal, familial, and society levels are discussed.

 

Tartakovsky, E. & Walsh, S.D. (2019) Are some immigrants more equal than others? Applying a threat-benefit model to understanding the appraisal of different immigrant groups by the local population. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2019.1565402

Abstract

The study examines the applicability of the Threat-Benefit Model as a means of conceptualising and measuring appraisal of diverse immigrant groups by a local population. A representative sample of adult Jewish Israelis (n = 1600, 52% women, mean age = 44.2) was used to examine locals’ attitudes toward four groups of immigrants: diaspora immigrants from the Former Soviet Union, Ethiopia and western countries (the US, UK, and France) and asylum seekers. The results obtained indicated that the patterns of appraisal of asylum seekers and diaspora immigrants by the local population differed substantially. Appraisal of asylum seekers was characterised by multi-domain negativity, which, in several domains, was not consistent with the group’s socio-demographic characteristics. Contrary to that, appraisal of diaspora immigrants demonstrated variability across different domains, which mainly coincided with the groups’ socio-demographic characteristics. Socio-demographic characteristics of members of the receiving society explained only a small proportion of variance in their appraisal of immigrants, thus suggesting a high level of societal consensus in appraising different immigrant groups. However, a lower level of religiosity was associated with a higher appraisal of most immigrant groups as beneficial and their lower appraisal as threatening for the receiving society. The present study advances scientific knowledge by shedding light on the processes related to intergroup relations in the context of immigration.

 

Yacknich, L., Pounko, I. & Walsh, S.D., (2019). The hidden matrix: Perspectives of youth and their parents on immigration and youth delinquent behavior Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology

DOI.org/10.1177/0022022119832128

Abstract

Immigrant youth delinquency may be associated with developmental, familial, social, and immigration-specific factors; however, scarce studies have examined the perspectives of both parents and their children as to the reasons for involvement in delinquent behavior. This study examines the extent to which immigration-related stressors may be associated with delinquent behavior of immigrant adolescents from the Former Soviet Union in Israel, from the perspectives of both young people and their parents. In-depth interviews with 10 male delinquent immigrant mid-late adolescents, aged 16 to 21 years, and their parents (eight mothers and two fathers) were conducted (N = 20). Phenomenological analysis highlighted the immigration experience as a hidden matrix within which dynamics associated with delinquency evolved. These dynamics involved situational factors (age, financial hardships, and social norms related to child-rearing), social factors (peer pressure and wish to be socially accepted), familial factors (stress experienced by the family, parental unavailability, and insufficient parental capabilities), and personality factors (sensation-seeking, desire for self-direction, emotion dysregulation, weak character, and inborn inclination to problematic behavior). While few participants directly address the immigration process, it can be considered the backdrop or matrix within which these factors are evolving. Implications for prevention on personal, familial, and society levels are discussed.

  

 ד"ר רותם לשם

Leshem, R., & Weisburd, D. (2019). Epigenetics and Hot Spots of Crime: Rethinking the Relationship between Genetics and Criminal Behavior. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 35(2), 186-204.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986219828924

Abstract

There is a growing recognition of the importance of micro-geographic areas in the generation of crime problems. While many studies show that crime is heavily concentrated at crime hot spots, scholars have only begun to examine how living in such places affects human development. We point to an unexplored component of the relationship between living in a hot spot, and crime and violence. We argue that crime hot spots function as violent and stressful environments and thus have long-term, possibly intergenerational, impacts on brain development. It is proposed that living in such places may be associated with DNA methylation profiles related to aggressive behavior. In this context, the study of the epigenetic influences of crime hot spots has tremendous potential for advancing our understanding of crime and violence, as well as generating new approaches for crime prevention.

 

Leshem, R., & Yefet, M. (2019). Does impulsivity converge distinctively with inhibitory control? Disentangling the cold and hot aspects of inhibitory control. Personality and Individual differences, 145, 44-51.

 

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.03.003

Abstract

Trait impulsivity incorporates deficits in cognitive processes that can be viewed as resulting from deficiencies in executive functions, particularly inhibitory control. To better understand the relationship between impulsivity and inhibitory control, it is useful to divide inhibitory control into cognitive (cold) and emotional (hot) variants, mediated by differential neural networks. In this study, we aimed to examine impulsivity-related differences in inhibitory control in response to non-emotional versus emotional stimuli. We further examined impulsivity-related differences in the ability to maintain attention during a continuous and repetitive activity, based on the same distinction between cold and hot categories. To evaluate cold and hot variants of inhibition and attentional processes in relation to trait impulsivity, we used two types of go/no-go tasks, non-emotional and emotional. Trait impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Results showed that high-impulsivity individuals were less able to exert both cold and hot variants of inhibitory control. When cognitive performance involved emotional stimuli, high-impulsivity participants were less prone to lapses of attention and better able to maintain attention. In conclusion, trait impulsivity was manifested differently when emotional stimuli were involved, especially in terms of the attentional component. A division into affective and cognitive components of impulsivity is proposed.

 

De Fano, A., Leshem R., & Ben-Soussan, T.D. (2019). Creating an internal environment of cognitive and psycho-emotional well-being through external movement-based environment: an overview of Quadrato Motor Training. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(12), 2160.

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122160

Abstract

In this overview, we discuss the internal and external environmental factors associated with cognitive and psycho-emotional well-being in the context of physical activity and Mindful Movement. Our key argument is that improved cognitive and emotional functions associated with mental well-being can be achieved by an external, Mindful Movement-based environment training called Quadrato Motor Training (QMT). QMT is a structured sensorimotor training program aimed at improving coordination, attention, and emotional well-being through behavioral, electrophysiological, neuroanatomical, and molecular changes. In accordance with this argument, we first describe the general neurobiological mechanisms underpinning emotional states and emotion regulation. Next, we review the relationships between QMT, positive emotional state, and increased emotion regulation, and discuss the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these relationships. We consider the relationships between motion, emotion, and cognition, and highlight the need for integrated training paradigms involving these three trajectories. Such training paradigms provide cognitively engaging exercises to improve emotion regulation, which in turn affects adaptive behaviors. Finally, we address the broader implications of improving cognitive and emotional functioning through Mindful Movement training for environmental research and public health.

 

ד"ר רויטל נאור-זיו

Glicksohn, J., Golan-Smooha, H., Naor-Ziv, R., Aluja, A., & Zuckerman, M. (2018). Uncovering the structure of personality, with a focus on the ZKA-PQ.  International Journal of Personality Psychology, 4, 13-19.

Full Text: https://ijpp.rug.nl/article/view/31084/28391

Abstract

Objective: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire provides scores for the five dimensions of the Alternative 5, namely Extraversion, Neuroticism, Sensation Seeking, Aggressiveness, and Activity.  What is the degree of interdependence among these five traits (dimensions) of the ZKA-PQ? What do we know about the internal structure of the multidimensional space defined by the Alternative 5?  Method: To address these questions, we employ a multiway classification of our 460 participants, using independent median splits along these five dimensions, resulting in a partitioning of the dimensional space into its 25 (= 32) sectors. This results in a multiway frequency table that we analyze using the log-linear model.  Results: The Alternative 5 defines a multidimensional space wherein all these combinations (profiles) do exist—hence providing testimony to the adequacy of this conceptualization. In our two-dimensional plots, we see both the non-homogeneity of personality space and areas in which personality types might well be found.   Conclusions: The contribution of a log-linear model here is to go beyond these surface-level, two-way relationships, and to take into account the higher-order interactions present in the model.  How to relate the complexity of the analysis (model) while achieving an understanding of the nature of this personality space is worthy of further study.

 

פרופ' גלית נהרי

Nahari, G., & Nisin, Z. (2019). Digging further into the Speech of Liars: Future Research Prospects in Verbal Lie Detection, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10:56.   

 

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00056/full

במאמר דעה זה מעודדים המחברים קו מחקר חדש, בהשראת גישת פוטנציאל האימות (Verifiability Approach), לזיהוי עקבות של אסטרטגיות רמייה בדברי חשודים, ומציעים שתי  התפתחויות תיאורטיות חדשות הנגזרות מקו זה.

 

Abstract

The field of verbal lie detection has grown rapidly in the past decade. Derived by the assumption that lies have different content patterns than do truths, research in this area promotes searching for content criteria to detect them. One prime content-based indicator for deception detection, which stems from the Reality Monitoring (RM) theory (1), is richness in detail. According to RM, truthful memories of actual events originate in perceptual experience and are embedded in the context of time and space. As such, they are expected to include more spatial and temporal contextual attributes (i.e., locations, spatial arrangement of people and objects, times, duration and sequence of events) and perceptual attributes (i.e., what the individual felt, tasted, smelled, heard, or saw when the event took place) than do false memories, which originate in self-generated thought or imagination. Derived from this prediction, the traditional use of richness in detail as an indicator of deception is based on the number of perceptual and contextual details in the interviewee's accounts. However, as a memory source-monitoring theory, RM does not take into consideration the intention of liars to deceive and consequently cannot explain the full scope of richness in detail in the field of deception (2). In contrast to false memories, where the individual has no intention to deceive but wrongly believes that his/her memory of an event that never happened is truthful, fabricated memories are an outcome of manipulation [and have thus been labeled “self-manipulated memories”; (2)]. Liars frequently attempt to manipulate their fabricated accounts to make them seem truthful (35), for example by intentionally adding false perceptual and contextual details (67). Affecting the quantity of the details in their fabricated accounts, such strategic manipulations reduce the diagnostic efficacy of the richness in detailindicator. Yet, in the current paper, we aim to show that the same strategies leave traces on the quality of details. Therefore, we propose that to maximize the potential utility of the richness in detail indicator, it is necessary to dig deeper into the speech of liars, particularly by looking for traces of deception strategies found in the quality of the details. In fact, the Verifiability Approach [VA; (48)] applies this notion.

Nahari, G., Ashkenazi, T., Fisher, R.P., Granhag, P.A., Hershkovitz, I., Masip, J., Meijer, E., Nisin, Z., Sarid, N., Taylor, P.J, Verschuere, B., Vrij, A. (2019). “Language of Lies”: Urgent issues and prospects in verbal lie detection research. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 24, 1- 23

Free access: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/lcrp.12148

Abstract

Since its introduction into the field of deception detection, the verbal channel has become a rapidly growing area of research. The basic assumption is that liars differ from truth tellers in their verbal behaviour, making it possible to classify them by inspecting their verbal accounts. However, as noted in conferences and in private communication between researchers, the field of verbal lie detection faces several challenges that merit focused attention. The first author therefore proposed a workshop with the mission of promoting solutions for urgent issues in the field. Nine researchers and three practitioners with experience in credibility assessments gathered for 3 days of discussion at Bar‐Ilan University (Israel) in the first international verbal lie detection workshop. The primary session of the workshop took place the morning of the first day. In this session, each of the participants had up to 10 min to deliver a brief message, using just one slide. Researchers were asked to answer the question: ‘In your view, what is the most urgent, unsolved question/issue in verbal lie detection?’ Similarly, practitioners were asked: ‘As a practitioner, what question/issue do you wish verbal lie detection research would address?’ The issues raised served as the basis for the discussions that were held throughout the workshop. The current paper first presents the urgent, unsolved issues raised by the workshop group members in the main session, followed by a message to researchers in the field, designed to deliver the insights, decisions, and conclusions resulting from the discussions.

 

פרופ' תומר עינת

Sulliman, N. & Einat, T. (2018). Does work-stress change personalities? Working in prison as a personality-changing factor among correctional officers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 45(5), 628-643.

 https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854818758141

Abstract

The study uses Behavioral Tendencies Scales tests to examine how employment as a correctional officer affects personality change, particularly neuroticism. We found a significant and conclusive increase in the neuroticism factor among correctional officers and a significant decrease in the comparison groups, as well as higher levels of neuroticism among longer serving officers than among newly employed officers. A significant increase in neuroticism was also revealed among correctional officers after 3 to 4 years of employment. Our findings led us to conclude that employment in prison is linked to changes in correctional officers’ personalities and levels of neuroticism, unlike the trend seen in the comparison groups and in that age group in the wider population. This highlights the distinctive and stressful nature of correctional facilities as a workplace that generates particular, negative personality changes.

 

‘Einat, T. & Davidian, M. The Meaning of Food and its uses in Prison Subculture. European Journal of Criminology

https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370818769258

Abstract

This study examines the ways in which the prison service handles food and analyses the uses and meanings of food in prison subculture. Using semi-structured interviews and content analysis, data were collected and analysed from 20 ex-prisoners who were incarcerated in maximum-security prison facilities for a period of three years or more. Our main findings are that, according to the interviewees’ testimonies, (a) the Israel Prison Service (IPS) makes manipulative and abusive use of food in order to perpetuate its power; and (b) food serves as a means to determine the relationship between prisoners and staff, govern social status or rejection in the prison subculture, or pass the time. We have four main conclusions. First, the IPS nutrition policy differentiates and discriminates among prisoners and clearly violates the basic human rights of prisoners, thus suggesting an abuse of power. Second, the IPS’s use of food as a tool for punishing or rewarding introduces and perpetuates inequalities and encourages the illegal prison trade in food and food products. Third, cooking in prison, especially in light of its illegality, constitutes a symbolic expression of resistance to the institution and a meaningful way of coping with boredom. Lastly, food and its possession in prison serve as very powerful tools for constructing and perpetuating exploitation and unequal power relations among prisoners.

Although the study suffers from two limitations – the validity of the adolescents’ responses and the small sample size – its findings lead us to propose that an improvement in the food products that are accessible to prisoners and permission to cook in their cells are inexpensive and legitimate means of bettering both the prisoners’ quality of life and the social atmosphere in prison.

 

Criminal Spin, Self-Control, and Desistance From Crime Among Juvenile Delinquents: Determinism Versus Free Will in a Qualitative Perspective

Ofer ZemelTomer EinatNatti Ronel

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0306624X18781208?journalCode=ijoe

Abstract

The current research is a qualitative examination of the relations between self-control and deterministic/non-deterministic perceptions of life events and the drifts into or desistance from a criminal spin among juvenile delinquents. Based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 adolescents (11 active delinquents and 10 desisters), we found that both the intensification of criminal behavior and the desistance from criminal activity are gradual and connected to the reduction or acquisition, respectively, of self-control and the offenders’ belief in their self-control. Criminal behavior and self-control were found to be associated with deterministic or non-deterministic perceptions of life events: the former combined with low self-control are associated with a delinquent lifestyle; the latter combined with high self-control promote the likelihood that young offenders will modify their behavior and desist from criminal behavior. The study may provide better understanding of the role of the criminal spin in the engagement or desistance from criminal behavior.

 

 

פרופ' נתי רונאל

Bonny-Noach, H. & Ronel, N. (2018). Everyday substance insecurity among homeless injection drug users in Israel's largest open drug scene. Journal of Drug Issues, 48(4), 645–656

https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042618791261

Abstract

Limited attention has been given to Homeless Injection Drug Users (HIDUs) perceived need for illegal substances. This study assessed self-perceived illegal drug need in HIDUs based on their experiences. Observations and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 HIDUs and with four treatment professionals. The findings revealed three findings concerning the unique experiences and perceptions of HIDUs: (a) Everyday Substance Need caused fear and anxiety, (b) Substance Need was experienced as more urgent than basic survival needs, and (c) HIDU participants attributed misunderstanding and denial of Substance Need to the authorities. It was found that HIDUs suffer from “Substance Insecurity,” which may be defined as the uncertain availability of quality substances (or their substitutes) and uncertain ability to acquire substances/substitutes and safe injection equipment in socially acceptable (or not) ways. Increased awareness of Substance Insecurity for HIDUs as a Substance Security First (SSF) model should be adopted.

 

Criminal Spin, Self-Control, and Desistance From Crime Among Juvenile Delinquents: Determinism Versus Free Will in a Qualitative Perspective

Ofer ZemelTomer EinatNatti Ronel

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0306624X18781208?journalCode=ijoe

Abstract

The current research is a qualitative examination of the relations between self-control and deterministic/non-deterministic perceptions of life events and the drifts into or desistance from a criminal spin among juvenile delinquents. Based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 adolescents (11 active delinquents and 10 desisters), we found that both the intensification of criminal behavior and the desistance from criminal activity are gradual and connected to the reduction or acquisition, respectively, of self-control and the offenders’ belief in their self-control. Criminal behavior and self-control were found to be associated with deterministic or non-deterministic perceptions of life events: the former combined with low self-control are associated with a delinquent lifestyle; the latter combined with high self-control promote the likelihood that young offenders will modify their behavior and desist from criminal behavior. The study may provide better understanding of the role of the criminal spin in the engagement or desistance from criminal behavior.