שמות הסטודנטים לפי סדר הא"ב (שם משפחה)
Edri, O., & Bensimon, M. (2018). The role of music among prisoners and prison staff: A qualitative research study. European Journal of Criminology.
Music is an integral part of every subculture, including that of prisons. However, no research has yet examined the meaning of music for prisoners and prison staff. The present research examined the role of music in the world of prisoners in Israel and how prison staff experience it. Content analysis of interviews with 10 convicted prisoners and 9 prison staff members indicated four central themes: the different ways prisoners consume and are exposed to music; the role of music in provoking positive and negative feelings; the role of music in the relationships among inmates – closeness and conflicts; and the role of music in the relationships between prisoners and prison staff, particularly in terms of prison regulation of music consumption.
Glicksohn, J., & Boikova, O. (2018). Mood and creativity over time in a bipolar participant. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 52(1), 66-79.
When depression alternates with mania, as in a bipolar affective disorder, creativity might be enhanced. To investigate this, we employed a single‐subject design, looking at both affective space and the spectral covariation of mood and creativity in a participant presenting with bipolar affective disorder. The study was conducted over a period of 54 days, and employed a standard measure of mood (the Brief Mood Introspection Scale) and a standard task of creativity (Alternative Uses Task). Both positive affect and negative affect appear to be somewhat undifferentiated for this participant, and her mood space does not conform to that described by the accepted major dimensions of Arousal and Pleasure. Conceivably, this is because of her rapid mood fluctuations. A 2.7‐day periodicity was found for Tired, Peppy, Nervous, and Calm, on the one hand, and ideational fluency, ideational flexibility, and originality, on the other. In addition, a 9‐day periodicity was common to Happy, Sad, and Gloomy—all three affects clustering in the same affective space—together with both ideational flexibility and originality. This finding brings into question the relationship between creativity and both positive and negative mood.
יצחק בן יאיר
Ronel, N., & Ben Yair, I. (2018). Spiritual criminology: The case of Jewish Criminology. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(7), 2081–2102
Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known. Our aim here is to present a complementary perspective; that is, spiritual criminology that emerges from the spiritual perspective. Following a description of the state-of-the-art in criminological research concerning spirituality and its impact upon individuals, we focus on Jewish criminology as an illustrative case study, and present a spiritual Jewish view on good and evil, including factors that lead to criminality, the issue of free choice, the aim of punishment and societal response, crime desistance, rehabilitation, and prevention. The proposed establishment of spiritual criminology can be further developed by including parallel schools of spirituality, to create an integrated field in criminology.
Einat, T. & Davidian, M. (2019). The Meaning of Food and its uses in Prison Subculture. European Journal of Criminology, 16(2), 127-146.
This study examines the ways in which the prison service handles food and analyses the uses and meanings of food in prison subculture. Using semi-structured interviews and content analysis, data were collected and analysed from 20 ex-prisoners who were incarcerated in maximum-security prison facilities for a period of three years or more. Our main findings are that, according to the interviewees’ testimonies, (a) the Israel Prison Service (IPS) makes manipulative and abusive use of food in order to perpetuate its power; and (b) food serves as a means to determine the relationship between prisoners and staff, govern social status or rejection in the prison subculture, or pass the time. We have four main conclusions. First, the IPS nutrition policy differentiates and discriminates among prisoners and clearly violates the basic human rights of prisoners, thus suggesting an abuse of power. Second, the IPS’s use of food as a tool for punishing or rewarding introduces and perpetuates inequalities and encourages the illegal prison trade in food and food products. Third, cooking in prison, especially in light of its illegality, constitutes a symbolic expression of resistance to the institution and a meaningful way of coping with boredom. Lastly, food and its possession in prison serve as very powerful tools for constructing and perpetuating exploitation and unequal power relations among prisoners.
Although the study suffers from two limitations – the validity of the adolescents’ responses and the small sample size – its findings lead us to propose that an improvement in the food products that are accessible to prisoners and permission to cook in their cells are inexpensive and legitimate means of bettering both the prisoners’ quality of life and the social atmosphere in prison.
Halevi, E., & Idisis, Y. (2018). Who helps the helper? Differentiation of self as an indicator for resisting vicarious traumatization. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(6), 698-705.
Objective: This study comprises a first attempt to explain and predict vicarious traumatization among therapists by means of Bowen’s Family Systems Theory (Bowen, 1978), especially with reference to the phenomenon “differentiation of self,” a central feature of his theory. Method: A sample of 134 individual and group therapists who work in public and private clinics completed a series of questionnaires that provided data regarding demographic information, differentiation of self, and a belief scale that measures the existence of vicarious trauma. Results: The findings indicate a strong negative correlation between vicarious traumatization and differentiation of self. In addition, participant age and “being in therapy” were both found to correlate with differentiation of self and vicarious traumatization. Conclusion: These findings point to the importance of differentiation of self as a resilience factor protecting against vicarious trauma, and have the potential to contribute to the development of tools for efficiently and accurately assessing predisposition toward vicarious traumatization among therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Criminal Spin, Self-Control, and Desistance From Crime Among Juvenile Delinquents: Determinism Versus Free Will in a Qualitative Perspective
The current research is a qualitative examination of the relations between self-control and deterministic/non-deterministic perceptions of life events and the drifts into or desistance from a criminal spin among juvenile delinquents. Based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 adolescents (11 active delinquents and 10 desisters), we found that both the intensification of criminal behavior and the desistance from criminal activity are gradual and connected to the reduction or acquisition, respectively, of self-control and the offenders’ belief in their self-control. Criminal behavior and self-control were found to be associated with deterministic or non-deterministic perceptions of life events: the former combined with low self-control are associated with a delinquent lifestyle; the latter combined with high self-control promote the likelihood that young offenders will modify their behavior and desist from criminal behavior. The study may provide better understanding of the role of the criminal spin in the engagement or desistance from criminal behavior.
Chamiel, E. & Walsh, S.D. (2018) “House arrest” or “developmental arrest”? a study of youth under house arrest. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62 (4), 4381-4402
Studies have examined the potential benefits and risks of alternative forms of detention, such as house arrest, for adults but, despite its growing use, little research has examined the implications of house arrest for juveniles. The current research examined the experience of 14 adolescents under house arrest. Six main themes were identified in the narratives of the participants: the experience of detention, daily schedule and utilization of time, emotions and self-reflection, relationships with peers, relation to parents and supervisor(s), and contact with professionals. Findings emphasized the potential developmental dangers of house arrest at the critical stage of adolescence. Yet, analysis also showed that the period of house arrest has the potential to be a period of positive changes, and can be used for successful rehabilitation.
Shrira, A., Menashe, R., & Bensimon, M. (2018). Filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors.
Objectives: Much is known about adult children caring for their aging parents, yet the potentially unique experience of offspring caring for traumatized parents is underexplored. Therefore, the current studies assessed filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) in caring for their parents.
Method: In Study 1, we interviewed 10 OHS (mean age = 61.0) in order to extract themes of filial anxiety. Based on Study 1's data, a newly constructed scale of filial anxiety was administered in Study 2 to 59 adult offspring (mean age = 56.4): 28 OHS and 31 comparisons. Study 3 included 143 dyads of parents and offspring (mean age = 55.4 and 81.7, respectively): 86 Holocaust dyads and 57 comparison dyads. Parents reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring reported filial anxiety and sense of obligation.
Results: In Study 1, interviewees referred to concerns about parent experiencing decline alongside caregiving difficulties. In Study 2, OHS reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. This group difference was mediated by sense of obligation. In Study 3, OHS with parental PTSD reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. Once more, filial sense of obligation served as a mediator. In Studies 2–3, results remained significant after adjusting for offspring symptoms.
Conclusion: Parental exposure to the Holocaust, and especially parental PTSD, related to higher filial obligation, which in turn was related to higher filial anxiety. These findings bear important implications for practitioners working with survivors' families
מורן סגין חסיד
Segin Chassid, M & Walsh, S.D. (2019) Parenting styles of immigrant fathers from the former Soviet Union Society and Welfare. Heb. ל"ט , 1, 109-135
סגנונות הורות של אבות מהגרים מברית-המועצות לשעבר, מורן סגין חסיד וסופי ד. וולש
רקע: תהליך ההגירה עשוי לערער את המבנה ואת הדינמיקה המשפחתיים. התהליך מלווה בקשיי
הסתגלות ובלחצים המשפיעים על היחסים בין כל בני המשפחה ועל המקום של כל אחד בתוך
המשפחה. מקומָם של גברים במשפחות עולות טרם נחקר דיו. המאמר הנוכחי מתמקד בדמות
האב במשפחות שעלו לישראל מברית-המועצות לשעבר, ביחסיו עם בני משפחתו, ובסגנון ההורות
של אבות למתבגרים.
שיטת המחקר: במחקר השתתפו 12 משפחות )הורים וילדיהם( שעלו לישראל מברית-המועצות
לשעבר. הממצאים נאספו באמצעות תצפיות וראיונות מובנים-למחצה עם ההורים ועם הילדים.
המחקר התבסס על תיאוריה המעוגנת בשדה כדי לבחון סגנונות שונים של אבהות במשפחות
שעלו מברית-המועצות לשעבר וליצור טיפולוגיה.
ממצאים עיקריים: ניתוח האינטראקציות והראיונות הוביל ליצירת טיפולוגיה של שלושה סגנונות
הורות של אבות במשפחות עולות מברית-המועצות לשעבר: ) 1( "דמות אב פסיבית" — האב נוכח
במשימות המשפחתיות אך אינו משתתף בהן; ) 2( "דמות אב נוכחת אך דחויה" — האב נוכח
במשימות המשפחתיות ומנסה להשתתף ולהביע דעה, אך בני המשפחה אינם מקבלים אותו ואף
מתעלמים מנוכחותו; ) 3( "דמות אב נוכחת ופעילה" — האב נוכח ומשתתף במשימות.
מסקנות והשלכות: המחקר יצר טיפולוגיה של סגנונות אבהוּת, וכך אפשר לזהות את מקומו של
האב במשפחה לאחר הגירה ואת קשייו. ממצאי המחקר מדגישים את שבריריות המעמד של אבות
לאחר הגירה, ואת החשיבות בעזרה לאבות ליצור לעצמם מקום נוכח ופעיל יותר במשפחה.
Does Work Stress Change Personalities? Working in Prison as a Personality-Changing Factor Among Correctional Officers
The study uses Behavioral Tendencies Scales tests to examine how employment as a correctional officer affects personality change, particularly neuroticism. We found a significant and conclusive increase in the neuroticism factor among correctional officers and a significant decrease in the comparison groups, as well as higher levels of neuroticism among longer serving officers than among newly employed officers. A significant increase in neuroticism was also revealed among correctional officers after 3 to 4 years of employment. Our findings led us to conclude that employment in prison is linked to changes in correctional officers’ personalities and levels of neuroticism, unlike the trend seen in the comparison groups and in that age group in the wider population. This highlights the distinctive and stressful nature of correctional facilities as a workplace that generates particular, negative personality changes.
Walsh, S.D., Kolobov, T., & Simanovskaya, O. (2018). What is it about perceived discrimination that can lead immigrant adolescents to alcohol use and delinquency? The Mediating Role of Feelings of Alienation. Substance Use and Misuse
Background: Despite research examining the relationship between discrimination and alcohol use and delinquency among adolescents, little is understood about the mechanism behind the relationship. Objectives: On the basis of Strain Theory, the current study examined a new theoretical model in which feelings of alienation (from the self, peers, and Israeli society) mediate the relationship between discrimination and alcohol use and delinquency. Methods: A one-year follow-up study was conducted with 146 at-risk youth from the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia in Israel (63% male), from disadvantaged low socioeconomic neighborhoods. At Time 1 (T1), adolescents were asked about their experiences of discrimination, feelings of alienation, and levels of problem alcohol use (past month/ever drunkenness, past month binge drinking, and regular daily drinking). At time 2 (T2), the participants were again asked as to their experiences of alienation, alcohol use, and delinquency. Results: Perceived discrimination at T1 significantly predicted feelings of alienation at T2, when controlling for the relationship with alienation at T1. Feelings of alienation (from the self and Israeli society) fully mediated the relationship between discrimination and alcohol use. However, there was a direct relationship between discrimination and delinquency. Conclusions:Findings emphasize the negative impact of discrimination on adolescents. They suggest that during the critical developmental period of adolescence, feelings of discrimination may be internalized into negative emotions which may lead to involvement in deviant behaviors. Results suggest a need to help adolescents process and make sense of the discriminatory experiences they perceive.
Yacknich, L., Pounko, I. & Walsh, S.D., (2019). The hidden matrix: Perspectives of youth and their parents on immigration and youth delinquent behavior Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology
Immigrant youth delinquency may be associated with developmental, familial, social, and
immigration-specific factors; however, scarce studies have examined the perspectives of both
parents and their children as to the reasons for involvement in delinquent behavior. This study
examines the extent to which immigration-related stressors may be associated with delinquent
behavior of immigrant adolescents from the Former Soviet Union in Israel, from the perspectives
of both young people and their parents. In-depth interviews with 10 male delinquent immigrant
mid-late adolescents, aged 16 to 21 years, and their parents (eight mothers and two fathers)
were conducted (N = 20). Phenomenological analysis highlighted the immigration experience
as a hidden matrix within which dynamics associated with delinquency evolved. These dynamics
involved situational factors (age, financial hardships, and social norms related to child-rearing),
social factors (peer pressure and wish to be socially accepted), familial factors (stress experienced
by the family, parental unavailability, and insufficient parental capabilities), and personality factors
(sensation-seeking, desire for self-direction, emotion dysregulation, weak character, and inborn
inclination to problematic behavior). While few participants directly address the immigration
process, it can be considered the backdrop or matrix within which these factors are evolving.
Implications for prevention on personal, familial, and society levels are discussed.
Rozmann, N. & Walsh, S.D. (2018). Perceived threat, blaming attribution, victim ethnicity and punishment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 66, 34-40
In cases of inter-group crime, research has shown that attitudes of majority population members toward a supposed defendant are influenced by his or her ethnicity, and, moreover, that levels of perceived (group) threat toward out-group defendants can impact on levels of punishment severity which members of the majority population believe they should receive. However, little research has focused on the ethnicity of the victim and/or on blaming attribution. Based on the theory of Defensive Attribution and Integrative Threat Theory, the purpose of the current study was to extend current understandings to examine a conceptual model in which 1) victim ethnicity moderates and 2) blaming attribution mediates the relationship between ethnic threat perceptions and the support for harsh punitive sanctions toward an out-group perpetrator involved in an intra/inter-racial offence. The study included 230 Israeli-Jewish students, who read a scenario describing an Arab perpetrator of crime and either a Jewish or Arab victim, and answered questions regarding perceived Arab threat, perpetrator blaming and attitudes to punishment. In line with hypotheses, findings showed that blaming attribution toward the perpetrator partially mediated the relationship between threat perceptions and support for harsh punitive sanctions. Furthermore, results showed that ethnic similarity between the observer and victim moderated the relationship between threat perceptions and punitiveness. Results suggest the importance of highlighting understandings of majority-minority relations in the field of criminology.
The Extent and Gender Directionality of Intimate Partner Violence in Different Relationship Types: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Rozmann, Nir, PhD Candidate, Ariel, Barak, PhD. Partner Abuse, Vol 9 Issue 4
The domestic violence research indicates two different approaches to victims. On one hand, it is argued that violence is a masculine or patriarchal mechanism of control and superiority based on research that shows higher rates of male violence toward women than vice versa. On the other hand, there is ample research that supports the claim of those patterns of violence and rates of victimization are equal between the genders. These contradictory findings call for a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the empirical data in order to establish the extent and directionality of victimization and abuse in violent relationships. To provide a more nuanced overview of this phenomenon, the present review examines the frequency of physical violence in different types of heterosexual relationships—dating, cohabitation, and marriage—according to national surveys and victim self-reports. The analysis is limited to sources in Hebrew and English. The searching procedure and criteria applied in selecting the studies generated 55 published studies from 36 countries. The main conclusion of the review is that the extent and directionality of violence vary with the type of relationship: while dating was reported to have higher rates of male victimization, in cohabitation and marital relationships, females reported higher levels of victimization rather. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Bensimon, M., Shaul, S., Div. S., Sandler, L., & Teitelbaum, A. (2018). Patient–centered approach in closed psychiatric wards: The curative power of relaxing music chosen by patients. Israel Journal of Psychiatry, 55(2), 55-58
Psychiatry is changing as medicine adopts a patient-centered approach. This model of care places greater emphasis on the patients' involvement in determining the goals of their treatment and the nature of their care. This study offers a non-verbal patient-centered intervention by using relaxing music chosen by patients in a closed psychiatric ward to achieve reduction in levels of stress and psychomotor agitation.
Participants, patients in closed wards, entered a seclusion room whenever they showed psychomotor agitation, overwhelming stress or physical and verbal aggression. While in the seclusion room, participants in the research group (n=24) were exposed to relaxing music of their choice whereas the comparative group (n=28) did not receive any sensory stimulation. The participants filled out the Visual Analogue Scale to measure their emotional state before and after this experience while the staff filled out the Behavioral Activity Rating Scale.
Results show significantly higher emotional calm and prominent reduction in psychomotor agitation among the research group in comparison with the comparative group.
Relaxing music chosen by patients has a positive effect on their emotional state and behavioral activity and may therefore serve as an alternative sensory intervention before patients reach violent situations that require restraint.
Walsh, S.D., Tartakovsky, E. &Shifter Weber, M. (2018). Personal values and immigrant appraisal as predictors of voluntary contact with immigrants among majority students in Israel. International Journal of Psychology.
What predicts whether young people will establish contacts with immigrants? Students are at a pivotal point in which the campus environment can enable substantial contact with immigrants, and where world views and behavioural patterns are formed which can follow through their adult lives. Through a value‐attitude‐behavior paradigm we examine a conceptual model in which appraisal of an immigrant group as a threat and/or benefit to the host society mediates the relationship between personal values and contact. Findings among 252 students in Israel showed that (1) threat/benefit appraisal of immigrants predicted voluntary contact; (2) personal values of self‐direction and hedonism directly predicted voluntary contact; and (3) Threat/benefit appraisal mediated the relationship between self‐direction and power and contact. Results suggest that increasing awareness of benefits of immigrants can promote positive inter‐group relations.