פרסומים אחרונים . Recent Publications

 

פרופ' משה בן סימון                                                                 Prof. Moshe Bensimon

Bensimon, M. (2020). Perceptions of music therapists regarding their work with children living under continuous war threat: Experiential reframing of trauma through songs. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy29(4), 300-316.

Abstract

Introduction: Research literature deals extensively with treatment of children who experience ongoing trauma. However, this topic has received scant attention in music therapy research. This study is the first to explore the therapeutic methods music therapists use with children living under continuous war threat and offers a subsequent emergent theory.

Method: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 experienced music therapists working with Israeli children who experience continuous war threat in towns located near the Gaza Strip.

Results: The findings yielded three themes regarding the therapeutic use of songs. The first theme focuses on creating a playful and joyful space that emphasizes the importance of overcoming fear by “playing with it”. The second theme, restoring a sense of control, focuses on the structured features of songs such as repetition of lyrics and melody in the chorus, use of rhyme, rhythm and fixed meter, all of which create an experience that provides a sense of control. The third theme, fostering resilience, relates to the ability of songs to represent the traumatic experience while conveying messages of strength and agency.

Discussion: The songs enabled the children to re-experience the fear of the trauma within a playful, controlled and resilient space. As a result, the traumatic memory was reframed and perceived as less threatening. The theory emerging from this therapeutic process was termed experiential reframing of trauma through songs (ERTS).

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Bensimon, M. (2020). Relational needs in music therapy with trauma victims: The perspective of music therapists. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy29(3), 240-254.

Abstract

Introduction: Many studies have examined relational needs (RNs) of trauma victims in psychotherapy. However, this topic has received little attention in music therapy research. The current study is the first to focus on what music therapists working with trauma victims perceive as their clients’ main RNs and how those RNs are musically addressed to enhance the therapeutic process.

Method: This study used a constructivist grounded theory approach. Analysis of semistructured interviews with 41 experienced music therapists working with trauma victims was conducted to identify themes in their perceptions of the main RNs of clients and how they address them musically.

Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed seven RNs of trauma victims, which according to the music therapists, were addressed during therapy: need for recognition, acceptance, emotional witnessing, emotional responsiveness, safety, trust, and the need for someone to reach out.

Discussion: Several significant concepts emerged in the process of addressing RNs of trauma victims. Musical validation highlights the ability of music to validate feelings aroused by traumatic memories and the clients’ sense of presence and being. Emotional witnessing through music stresses the important holding role of music and its ability to organize traumatic experiences as meaningful and coherent narratives. Musical witnessing as a self-object is a process whereby the client becomes both the participant and observer in a two-part process of expression and reflection. Finally, attuned musical involvement is a process in which the therapist becomes musically attuned with the client, thus strengthening therapist-client relationship and facilitating the therapeutic process.

 

Dr. Keren Gueta                                                                                  ד"ר קרן גואטה 

Gueta, K., Eytan, S., & Yakimov, P. (2020). Between healing and revictimization: The experience of public self-disclosure of sexual assault and its perceived effect on recovery. Psychology of Violence, 10(6),626-637

 Abstract

Objective: The present study explored the experience of public self-disclosure of sexual assault and its perceived effect on recovery from the survivor’s point of view. Method: A sample of 14 Israeli women (between the ages of 23 and 63) who had disclosed their sexual assault experience through various media channels were interviewed, and their accounts were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Public self-disclosure was found to be a multifaceted experience, and participants perceived it to affect their recovery in many ways. First, the participants’ motivation for disclosure was a desire to advocate for social change and to find meaning, thereby facilitating their own recovery. Second, the disclosure was seen as a healing experience because it helped the participants forge a resilient and activist identity, reframe the sexual assault narrative, and improve their interpersonal relationships. Last, public disclosure could also be a revictimizing experience because it undermined the participants’ sense of security and made victimization a central feature of their identity. Conclusion: This study suggests that the meaning ascribed to public self-disclosure and its perceived outcomes may be a context-dependent process, shaped by the goals, benefits, and risks of disclosure and weighed against the relevance, benefits, and risks of other options. The results of the research inform the guidance of survivors who are considering public self-disclosure of their sexual assault experience, to ensure they do so safely and beneficially.

 

פרופ' סופי וולש                                                                            Prof. Sophie Walsh 

Clusters of Contemporary Risk and Their Relationship to Mental Well-Being Among 15-Year-Old Adolescents Across 37 Countries
Sophie D. Walsh, Ph.D. , Tal Sela, Ph.D. , Margaretha De Looze, Ph.D. , Wendy Craig, Ph.D. ,
Alina Cosma, Ph.D. , Yossi Harel-Fisch, Ph.D. , Meyran Boniel-Nissim, Ph.D. ,
Marta Malinowska-Cieslik, Ph.D. , Alessio Vieno, Ph.D. , Michal Molcho, Ph.D. ,
Kwok Ng, Ph.D. , and William Pickett, Ph.D.

Abstract
Purpose: Adolescents' mental well-being has become a growing public health concern. Adolescents'
daily lives and their engagement in risks have changed dramatically in the course of the 21st
century, leading to a need to update traditional models of risk to include new exposures and
behaviors. To date, studies have examined the relationship between (mainly traditional) risk behaviors
and adolescent mental well-being or looked at risk factors that jeopardize mental wellbeing
such as lack of social support but have not combined them together to highlight the most
significant risks for adolescent mental well-being today. The present study included new and
traditional risk behaviors and risk factors, robustly derived an empirically based model of clusters
of risk, and examined the relative association of these clusters to adolescent mental well-being.
Methods: Data from the 2017e2018 Health Behaviours in School-aged Children study were used.
The sample included 32,884 adolescents (51.7% girls) aged 15 years from 37 countries and regions.
The principal component analysis was used to determine the existence of clusters of risk, using 21
items related to adolescent mental well-being that included both risk behaviors (e.g., substance
use) and risk factors (e.g., peer support). Analysis was conducted in both a randomly split training
and test set and in gender separate models. Mixed-effects logistic regressions examined the association
between clusters of risk and mental well-being indices (low life satisfaction and psychosomatic
complaints).

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A Phenomenological Study of Immigrant Parents of Adolescents with Delinquent Behavior in Israel
LIAT YAKHNICH
SOPHIE D. WALSH

Abstract
Scarce qualitative literature has focused on understanding the perspective of parents of
adolescents involved in crime, and no prior literature has examined how the status of being
a parent of an adolescent who is involved in delinquency intersects with being an immigrant
parent. The current phenomenological study examined, through the eyes of immigrant
parents, how they comprehend their children’s involvement in delinquent behavior.
This study examined in-depth semistructured interviews conducted with fourteen immigrant
parents (10 mothers and 4 fathers) from the former Soviet Union in Israel of children
treated in rehabilitation facilities for delinquent youth. Data analysis revealed a gradual
decline in children’s behavior ascribed to the developmental stage of adolescence, the pressures
of immigration, and cultural conflict. These three factors are interwoven together to
create a fabric within which they see their children turning to crime. Parents’ gradual loss
of control is balanced by attempts to idealize the parent–child relationship and to minimize
the severity of the offenses committed. They describe various differing and even contradictory
experiences of themselves as parents and their struggles to piece together incohesive,
alternating experiences of themselves as parents. Despite the critical role they can play in
their children’s rehabilitation, as well as the distress that they themselves experience, parents
of children involved in delinquent behavior have often been ignored in research.
Acknowledging parents’ perspectives and experiences can allow development of appropriate
therapeutic strategies to support them and maximize their abilities to support their children.
Keywords: Immigrant; Adolescent; Parents; Delinquency; Israel
Fam Proc x:1–18, 2020

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Parenting Behaviors as Moderators of the Relationship between Immigrant Status and
Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Israel

Sophie D. Walsh , Tanya Kolobov, and Yossi Harel-Fisch
 

Abstract
Adolescent alcohol use is a subject of concern. Despite research
showing an association between parenting behaviors and alcohol use,
scarce research has examined whether associations are similar across
immigrant status. This question is relevant given that immigration can
disrupt parent–adolescent relations. The aim of the current study was to
examine the moderating role of parenting behaviors (support, parental
knowledge, and communication) on the association between immigrant
status and alcohol use (drunkenness and heavy episodic drinking). The
study included representative samples of first- and second-generation
immigrant adolescents from the Former Soviet Union (FSU; N = 1,167)
and Ethiopia (N = 385), and non-immigrant (N = 6,669) adolescents in
Israel. Non-immigrant adolescents reported higher levels of parenting
behaviors and lower levels of alcohol use than immigrant adolescents.
Parenting behaviors were negatively associated with alcohol use, but

there were no interactions between parenting behaviors and immigrant
status. However, differences in parenting behaviors partly explained
differences in alcohol use across groups.
Keywords
immigrant, adolescent, parental support and communication, parental
knowledge, alcohol use

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“Maybe One Day I Will also be Almito”: Ethiopian Israelis, Naming, and the Politics of Immigrant Identity
Sophie D Walsh
Liat Yakhnich


Abstract

The issue of name change, and in particular name reclaiming (i.e., taking back a
heritage name), among immigrants has been rarely studied academically, despite its
centrality to immigrant identity and immigration experiences. Immigrants, in many
countries, are often encouraged or pressured to change their names, but in recent
years, some have chosen to reclaim their heritage or original names. This article
analyzes the practice of name reclaiming among young Israelis of Ethiopian heritage,
a community that has experienced racial discrimination. Data were gathered
through a qualitative phenomenological study of 19 young adults who immigrated to
Israel from Ethiopia as minors. The analysis yielded two simultaneous dialogues: an
internal dialogue in which individuals described their personal experience of name
reclaiming and an external dialogue in which name reclaiming reflected a political and
social process through which a discriminated minority could express increased
feelings of power and agency. The results enrich the study of migration by showing
the ways in which personal and social-political processes experienced by a
discriminated minority intertwine, as vividly illustrated by the specific case of name
reclaiming.

 

ד"ר רותם לשם                                                                               Dr. Rotem Leshem

Leshem, R., Icht, M., Bentaur, R., & Ben-David, B. M. (2020). Processing of emotions in speech in forensic patients with schizophrenia: Impairments in identification, selective attention, and integration of speech channels. Frontiers in Psychiatry11, 1227.

Abstract

Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits in recognition of emotions which may increase the risk of violence. This study explored how forensic patients with schizophrenia process spoken emotion by: (a) identifying emotions expressed in prosodic and semantic content separately, (b) selectively attending to one speech channel while ignoring the other, and (c) integrating the prosodic and the semantic channels, compared to non-clinical controls. Twenty-one forensic patients with schizophrenia and 21 matched controls listened to sentences conveying four emotions (anger, happiness, sadness, and neutrality) presented in semantic or prosodic channels, in different combinations. They were asked to rate how much they agreed that the sentences conveyed a predefined emotion, focusing on one channel or on the sentence as a whole. Forensic patients with schizophrenia performed with intact identification and integration of spoken emotions, but their ratings indicated reduced discrimination, larger failures of selective attention, and under-ratings of negative emotions, compared to controls. This finding doesn’t support previous reports of an inclination to interpret social situations in a negative way among

individuals with schizophrenia. Finally, current results may guide rehabilitation approaches matched to the pattern of auditory emotional processing presented by forensic patients with schizophrenia, improving social interactions and quality of life.

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Leshem, R. (2020). There are More than Two Sides to Antisocial Behavior: The Inextricable Link between Hemispheric Specialization and Environment. Symmetry12(10), 1671.

Abstract

Human functions and traits are linked to cerebral networks serving different emotional and cognitive control systems, some of which rely on hemispheric specialization and integration to promote adaptive goal-directed behavior. Among the neural systems discussed in this context

are those underlying pro- and antisocial behaviors. The diverse functions and traits governing our social behavior have been associated with lateralized neural activity. However, as with other complex behaviors, specific hemispheric roles are difficult to elucidate. This is due largely to environmental

and contextual influences, which interact with neural substrates in the development and expression of pro and antisocial functions. This paper will discuss the reciprocal ties between environmental factors and hemispheric functioning in the context of social behavior. Rather than an exhaustive review,

the paper will attempt to familiarize readers with the prominent literature and primary questions to encourage further research and in-depth discussion in this field.

 

 Prof. Galit Nahari                                                                               פרופ' גלית נהרי    

The Verifiability Approach: A Meta-Analysis

Nicola Palena, Letizia Caso, Aldert Vrij, Galit Nahari

Abstract

The Verifiability Approach (VA) is a verbal veracity tool that assumes that truth tellers provide more details that canbe verified and obtain a higher ratio of such details (verifiable details/total details) than liars. A VA meta-analysiswas conducted. Results showed that truth tellers reported more verifiable details than liars (k = 20, N = 1532, g =0.42). The effect was moderated by the presence of the information protocol and by the nature of the statement(event-related or not). Truth tellers reported a higher ratio of verifiable details than liars (k = 18, N = 1359, g =0.49). The effect was moderated by the medium through which the statement was provided. Unverifiable details didnot discriminate truth tellers from liars (k = 15, N = 957, g = −0.25). In conclusion, results showed good potentialfor the use the VA, although replications and field studies are needed.

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Vernham, Z., Vrij, A., & Nahari, G., Leal, S., Mann, S., & Satchell, L., Orthey, R. (2020). Applying the verifiability approach to deception detection in alibi witness situations. Acta Psychologica, 204, 1 – 14.

Abstract

The application of alibi witness scenarios to deception detection has been overlooked.  Experiment 1 was a study of the verifiability approach in which truth-telling pairs completed a mission together, whereas in lying pairs one individual completed this mission alone and the other individual committed a mock theft.  All pairs were instructed to convince the interviewer that they completed the mission together by writing individual statements on their own followed by a collective statement together as a pair.  In the individual statements, truth-telling pairs provided more checkable details that demonstrated they completed the mission together than lying pairs, whereas lying pairs provided more uncheckable details than truth-telling pairs.  The collective statements made truth-telling pairs provide significantly more checkable details that demonstrated they were together in comparison to the individual statements, whereas no effect was obtained for lying pairs.  Receiver Operating Characteristic curves revealed high accuracy rates for discriminating between truths and lies using the verifiability approach across all statement types.  Experiment 2 was a lie detection study whereby observers’ abilities to discriminate between truths and lies using the verifiability approach were examined.  This revealed that applying the verifiability approach to collective statements improved observers’ ability to accurately detect deceit. We suggest that the verifiability approach could be used as a lie detection technique and that law enforcement policies should consider implementing collective interviewing.

 

Prof. Tomer Einat                                                                             פרופ' תומר עינת      

Anat Yaron-Antar, Tomer Einat, Limor Sheffer, Evgeny Shinkarenko, Tal Bergman Levy  (in press). Murderers Who Are Not Guilty Due to Insanity: Demographic, Criminal, and Psychiatric Characteristics. Israel Journal of Psychitry.  

     Abstract 

Background: While various studies have revealed a correlation between major psychiatric disorders and violent behavior, studies focusing on the demographic, criminal, and psychiatric characteristics of murderers and their behavior at the scene of the crime are relatively scarce. The aim of this study is therefore to examine these characteristics of murderers who committed murder due to insanity and to analyze their behavior at the scene of crime.

Method: The study was conducted at the maximum secure unit of Sha’ar-Menashe Mental Health Center and reviewed all files of the 69 inpatients who have committed murder and been admitted to the unit since its opening in 1997.

Results: 93% of the participants were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 70% had at least one psychiatric hospitalization before committing the crime,  57% did not adhere to medications between hospitalizations, 33% took medications sporadically, and 42% of those diagnosed with a psychotic disorder prior to the murder did not regularly attend their psychiatric follow-up. Regarding the crime, in 91% of the cases, the victim was known to the murderer, 69% of the murders were brutal, 47% of the murderers remained at the scene after committing the murder and only 30% left.

Conclusion: The findings offer a better understanding of the factors and motivations leading individuals with psychotic disorder to commit violent crimes and murder and their behavior at the scene of the crime. This may assist in identifying at-risk populations and developing and implementing relevant prevention programs.   

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Tyer, L., Einat, T. & Yaron Antar, A. (in press). The Long-Term Effects of Solitary Confinement from the Perspective of inmates. The Prison Journal

 Abstract 

This qualitative study, analyzes the effects of solitary confinement on prisoners and the strategies used by them to cope with its difficulties. The findings indicate that solitary confinement is perceived as unfair and as intensifying hostile emotions and physical aggression, and that it is related to a range of long-term physiological, mental and behavioral disorders. Three strategies are used to cope with the difficulties of solitary confinement: keeping to a ritualistic routine, a religious lifestyle, and physical exercise. We conclude that solitary confinement exacerbates the difficulties of detention and affects prisoners’ health and well-being for short and long terms. 

Keywords: Solitary confinement, separation, long-term Effects, coping strategies, prisoners. 

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Zemel, O., Einat, T., Ronel, N. & Ben-Aharon, M. (in press). Psychological Acceptance, Perceived Locus of Control, and Abstention or Desistence from Delinquent Behavior Among At-Risk Adolescents. Journal of offender Rehabilitation. 

 Abstract 

This study examines processes of psychological acceptance and perceived locus of control among at-risk adolescents and analyzes their influence on the avoidance or cessation of delinquent activity. The findings reveal that this process of psychological acceptance helps the adolescents to reinterpret risk factors in their lives as challenges that can be faced positively and, consequently, avoid or cease delinquent behaviors. We conclude that this introspective process contributes to the development of an internal locus of control and thus to the adoption of normative behavior and that dramatic crises in life can occasionally offer at-risk adolescents opportunities for positive change. 

 

 

פרופ' נתי רונאל                                                                                          Prof. Natti Ronel

Positive Criminology: Theory, Research, and Practice Natti Ronel and Ety Elisha

 Abstract 

Positive criminology is an innovative perspective that underlies existing theories and models emphasizing the positive forces that influence and assist individuals at risk and offenders in their recovery process. The theories and models included in positive criminology (e.g., peacemaking criminology, social acceptance, crime desistance, restorative justice) are not new; its novelty lies in their inclusion in a unique and distinct conceptualization. This has led to a shift in discourse and research in criminology, which goes beyond focusing on risk and criminogenic factors while focusing on the positive factors and strengths that help individuals to rehabilitate and successfully integrate into the community. Studies and practices developed over the past decade have confirmed and reinforced the assumptions of the positive criminology perspective. Despite its specific limitations, positive criminology provides a promising platform for further developments and innovations in research in theory (e.g., positive victimology, spiritual criminology) and in practice (e.g., restorative justice, problem-solving courts, community policing).

Keywords:positive criminology, offenders rehabilitation, prevention, human goodness, strengths,  positive victimology, spiritual criminology, international criminology