פרסומים אחרונים . Recent Publications

 

פרופ' משה בן סימון                                                                 Prof. Moshe Bensimon

Bensimon. M. (2021). Integration of trauma in music therapy: A qualitative study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.

Objective: The importance of integration in psychotherapy is a growing area of research, theory, and practice, especially regarding traumatic events. Although research relates to integration in the context of music therapy with trauma survivors, it has rarely been the main focus of research. The current study investigates which principles and techniques guide music therapists to facilitate integration of trauma survivors.

Method: Using the phenomenological approach, analysis of semistructured interviews with 41 experienced music therapists working with traumatized populations was conducted to identify themes regarding their perception on integration.

Results: The findings yielded three different ways of integration. Body integration entails the ability of active music playing to serve as a sensorial stimulus that bypasses linguistic and logical mediation and enables clients to live in peace with their body and feel whole. Event integration relates to a process by which a repressed traumatic event reemerges into consciousness through music and leads to emotional and cognitive integration of that event. Lastly, life story integration relates to the ability to perceive a life story as a whole. The process includes embedding a trauma into the natural flow of a life story through music and achieving emotional and cognitive integration.

Conclusions: These three ways of integration are conceptualized as a progression of three consecutive levels of integration which may assist music therapists in their work with trauma survivors.

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Bensimon, M. (2021). Explaining post-prison rehabilitation through music from the Good Lives Model perspective. European Journal of Criminology. 

Whereas many research studies have discussed the impact of music programmes in a prison setting, few studies have investigated the impact of music programmes that take place outside the prison and are intended for formerly incarcerated individuals. The current study aims to fill this void by examining the experience of formerly incarcerated individuals who participated in a group music programme intended to assist them on their journey towards rehabilitation. Five formerly incarcerated individuals who participated in the Sounding Out Programme (SOP), a group music programme funded by the Irene Taylor Trust in London, were interviewed for this research. In addition, three programme staff members were interviewed in order to gain further perspective on the process. Content analysis of the interviews indicated the emergence of four central themes: improved social bonding, a sense of hope and life purpose, a sense of achievement, and transformation. These findings are discussed in light of the Good Lives Model (GLM). Accordingly, the SOP assisted both formerly incarcerated individuals and programme staff members in attaining the following GLM primary goods in life: community, relatedness, knowledge, spirituality, excellence in work and play, excellence in agency, and creativity.

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   פרופ' יוסי גליקסון                                                                   Prof. Joseph Glicksohn

Naor-Ziv, R., Bernaz Lavi, A., & Glicksohn, J. (2021).  Empathizing-systemizing:  From style to intent.  Personality and Individual Differences, 179.

The empathizing-systemizing (E-S) cognitive styles advanced by Baron-Cohen refer to (1) empathizing (E), the ability to recognize another person's mental state and to respond with an appropriate emotion, and (2) systemizing (S), the drive to identify the rules that govern a system. We examine two implications of E-S cognitive styles: The relationship between the E-S cognitive styles and their corresponding behavioral intention; whether these are negatively correlated dimensions or orthogonal dimensions. We designed a task comprising eight images of stressful situations. E predicts E behavioral intention, whereas S does not predict S behavioral intention. A negative correlation was found between the E and S intentions, but not between the cognitive styles.

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Yaniv, H., & Glicksohn, J. (2021).  Perception and aggressive ideation:  A microgenetic approach.  Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice.

Our participants observed a series of degraded images of two artworks using a microgenetic method. What would be an observer’s response to a visual image depicting an act of violence? While the microgenetic method was expected to elicit aggressive ideation, two competing hypotheses were considered: (a) more aggressive content in the verbal reports, or (b) less aggressive content in the verbal reports. Both hypotheses are supported by our data. For individuals suffering from mental disorders, having a history of aggression, we report a low level of ideational fluency and a high level of aggressive ideation; for creative individuals who study or work in creative fields (e.g., music, painting, and sculpting), with no psychiatric history, we report a high level of ideational fluency and a low level of aggressive ideation. Furthermore, these two groups score high on absorption, suggesting an absorption-aggression-creativity linkage. 
 

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Dr. Keren Gueta                                                                                  ד"ר קרן גואטה 

Gueta, K., & Chen, G. (2021). “You have to start normalizing”: Identity construction among self-changers and treatment changers in the context of drug use normalization. Social Science & Medicine. 

Abstract

Identity transformation and stigma management have been widely acknowledged as significant factors in various drug-cessation pathways, such as self-change (SC) and treatment-change (TC). These processes involve the employment of symbolic boundaries within which people associate themselves with desired groups and/or distance themselves from less desirable ones. However, the relevance of the drug-cessation pathway to identity construction in an era of drug-use normalization has not yet been explored. The present study used thematic discourse analysis to compare the drug-cessation narrative and the reflected identity construction of 41 former drug users in Israel (25 SCs and 16 TCs). The findings revealed a shared trigger for drug cessation that was related to impaired functionality and a threat to their identity. However, the groups differed in other drug-cessation factors that served their identity-negotiation strategies. The SCs negotiated stigma by distancing themselves from other drugs users, minimizing drug risk, and denying the need for drug treatment. In contrast, the TCs negotiated stigma by distancing themselves from their former user identities, embracing the disease model of drug use, and confirming the necessity of treatment. This identity construction reflects continuous framing of ideals of subjectivity, such as self-regulation, which policy makers and treatment stakeholders should consider in developing services and conveying substance-use policy messages.

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Gueta, K., Chen, G., & Ronel, N. (2021). Trauma-oriented recovery framework with offenders: A necessary missing link in offenders' rehabilitation. Aggression and Violent Behavior

Research has shown that incarcerated individuals experience significantly higher rates of trauma prior to and during incarceration, compared with the general population. However, despite the rich evidence regarding traumatic backgrounds, and evidence of a link between trauma and (re)offending, trauma-informed practice among inmates, particularly among men, is still limited. The paucity of trauma-informed services among inmates may be due to the deeply polarized victimization and criminal paradigms, that ignore the empirical overlap between victims and offenders. Given this limitation, the aim of this article is to outline a Trauma-Orientated Recovery Framework (TORF) for offenders, by synergizing positive victimology with a positive criminology perspective. These holistic perspectives highlight the value of promoting personal, interpersonal, and spiritual integration. Accordingly, this practice framework outlines guidelines for formal and informal interventions, to achieve recovery and rehabilitation by promoting positive experiences such as self-compassion, family involvement, forgiveness, service to others, social support, recovery-oriented carceral environments, and spiritual growth. By providing a comprehensive framework, these guidelines target symptoms of multilevel trauma, and encourage the incarcerated individual to living a life worth living, in a bid to help them connect with community, and foster their spiritual growth, thereby making great strides toward addressing recidivism.

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פרופ' סופי וולש                                                                            Prof. Sophie Walsh 

Sophie D. Walsh and Eugene TartakovskyPersonal Value Preferences, Threat-Benefit Appraisal of Immigrants and Levels of Social Contact: Looking Through the Lens of the Stereotype Content Model

Abstract

The study examines a model proposing relationships between personal values, positive (i.e., benefits) and negative (i.e., threats) appraisal of immigrants, and social contact. Based on a values-attitudes-behavior paradigm, the study extends previous work on personal values and attitudes to immigrants by examining not only negative but also positive appraisal and their connection with social contact with immigrants. Using a representative sample of 1,600 adults in the majority population in Israel, results showed that higher preference for anxiety-avoidance values (self-enhancement and conservation) was related to higher levels of perceived threat and lower levels of benefit, while higher preference for anxiety-free values (self-transcendence and openness to change) was related to higher levels of perceived benefits and lower levels of threat. Greater opportunities for contact and perceived benefits and lower levels of threats were related to more social contact. The model showed good fit across the total sample, and across four diverse immigrant groups in Israel (diaspora immigrants from the Former Soviet Union, Ethiopia and Western countries, and asylum seekers). In line with a Stereotype Content Model, which suggests that group-specific stereotypes are related to social structural characteristics of the group, associations between variables differed by group. Results strengthen a theoretical conceptualization that posits an indirect relationship between personal value preferences and behavior through group appraisal. They highlight the importance of comprehensive conceptualizations including both positive and negative appraisal of immigrants, which take into account the way different groups may be appraised by the majority population.

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Liat Yakhnich, Simcha Getahune  & Sophie D. Walsh.  ‘This identity is part of you, you cannot run away from it’: identity experiences among young Israelis of Ethiopian origin

While theory around identity processes is abundant, scarce literature has examined how immigrants themselves identify and experience issues related to their identity. This phenomenological study aims to understand how young Israelis of Ethiopian origin relate to their identity and what, for them, are the salient issues involved in their identity negotiations. Nineteen participants, who immigrated to Israel from Ethiopia as children and adolescents, were interviewed for this study. Data analysis yielded themes related to participants’ experiences of identity-related issues: their sense of identity and its’ components, skin colour and identity, personal versus group identity, processes and routes for searching for identity. The findings highlight the interplay between society and personal identity negotiation and have practical and theoretical implications.

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Sarit Bar Zaken, Sophie D.Walsh. Bridging the cultural gap: Challenges and coping mechanisms employed by Arab art therapists in Israel

The current study deals with the gaps encountered by art therapists from the Arab minority in Israel between the knowledge they acquired during their training and the knowledge they have accrued through work with members of their cultural group. Training of therapists in Israel is based on Western theoretical knowledge that, in general, focuses on the individual, self-actualization, and emotional expression. In contrast, collective societies, like the Arab society, typically perceive the collective as being more significant than the individual. This study is based on qualitative, phenomenological research that included in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 13 experienced art therapists and students from the Arab society in Israel. The research asked the question: What do art therapists from Arab societies need to bridge and how do they do this? To date, no research of this question has been done. The findings illuminated three main themes that these therapists experience: (1) the foreignness of psychology and art therapy in Arab society especially among parents, the resistance to artwork, and the alienation of therapy in schools; (2) conflicts between their professional principles and the perceptions of their society in connection with family exposure issues, religion, sexuality, and the duty to report; and (3) gaps between themselves and the Arab society. Their methods of coping include creating a hybrid, dual-cultural identity along a conformist-confrontational continuum. The findings highlight the complexity that art therapists from a cultural minority experience and the intricate strategies which they develop for bridging the gaps.

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דר' רותם לשם                                                                               Dr. Rotem Leshem

Leshem, R., & King, R. (2021). Trait impulsivity and callous‐unemotional traits as predictors of inhibitory control and risky choices among high‐risk adolescents. International journal of psychology56(2), 314-321. 

Trait impulsivity and callous-unemotional traits are associated with behavioural problems among high-risk adolescents. While both are known to influence behaviour, the nature of their expression in high-risk behaviours, particularly those related to inhibitory control, is not well understood. In the current, preliminary study, we examined whether and how these traits predicted deficits in behaviour driven by bottom-up, automatic versus deliberate, top-down inhibitory processes among high-risk adolescents. Two go/no-go task variants, emotional and non-emotional, were used to assess reactive response inhibition, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used to assess the ability to resist deliberate risky choices. The results showed that the two types of self-reported trait measures were differentially associated with performance on the two types of behavioural inhibition tasks. Trait impulsivity predicted non-emotional inhibitory control whereas callous-unemotional traits predicted risky choices. The results also showed that the emotions task elicited slower reaction times and higher false alarm rates than did the letters task, and that participants had greater difficulty inhibiting responses to negatively than to positively valenced no-go stimuli. While preliminary, the results suggest that the interplay between trait impulsivity and callous-unemotional traits is an important determinant of inhibitory behaviour in this high-risk adolescents.

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Leshem, R., & Altman, C. (2021). Distinct effects of executive functioning, impulsivity, and anxiety on global and local reading comprehension. Frontiers in Education 

Reading comprehension (RC) is a cognitive ability linked with higher-order cognitive functions referred to as executive functions (EFs) and is also associated with educational achievement. To date, there is little research exploring links between reading comprehension, EFs, and personality traits. This study attempts to fill this gap by elucidating the role of EFs, trait impulsivity, and trait anxiety in RC among university students. To achieve a more in-depth examination, RC is divided into its global and local subskills. Ninety university students (83% female) completed self-report questionnaires on EFs, impulsivity, and anxiety, a neuropsychological task for cognitive flexibility, and global/local RC assessments. Our results indicated distinct associations between poor general EFs and poor global RC, poor cognitive flexibility and poor local RC, and, finally, between high impulsivity and adequate global RC. Individual differences in global and local information processing strategies in the context of attentional processes and personal traits of the university students, is discussed.

 

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 Prof. Galit Nahari                                                                               פרופ' גלית נהרי    

Credibility assessments of alibi accounts: The role of cultural intergroup bias

Nir Rozmann, Galit Nahari

Research has shown that judges and jurors are influenced by suspect ethnicity and that they might discriminate against out-group suspects in making decisions. This study examined the tendency to favor in-group members, as predicted by social identity theory, in assessing alibi credibility. Forty Israeli-Jewish and 40 Israeli-Arab participants assessed the credibility of an alibi statement provided by a suspect who was either Israeli-Jewish or Israeli-Arab. Findings show that participants were more likely to believe the alibi when it was provided by an in-group suspect than by an out-group suspect, supporting intergroup bias in alibi credibility assessments. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

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Credibility assessment in context: the influence of intergroup bias and the context of the crime

Nir Rozmann, Galit Nahari

The current study examined how the context of the crime and the ethnic affiliations of the suspects and participants influenced credibility assessments with respect to in- and out-group suspects. The 200 participants, half Israeli-Jewish and half Israeli-Arab, assessed the credibility of an alibi statement provided be either an Israeli-Jewish or an Israeli-Arab suspect accused of vandalism in either an ethnic-based or neutral-based context. The results indicate that the context of the crime moderated the effect of intergroup bias on credibility assessment among Israeli-Arab participants (out-group members). Under both crime contexts, Israeli-Jewish suspects were perceived as less credible than Israeli-Arab suspects. However, for Israeli-Arab, the effect of intergroup bias was stronger in the ethnic-based context than in the neutral-based context. Overall, the results suggest that Israeli-Arab group might have felt threatened by the ethnic-based context, which could have increased the group bias in their judgments, as compared to the Israeli-Jewish group.

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Prof. Tomer Einat                                                                             פרופ' תומר עינת      

Einat, T., Antar-Yaron, A. & Nardimon, S. (2021). Values, norms, power struggles, and hierarchy among women working as club strippers in Israel: A qualitative perspective. Sexuality & Culture (published online). 

Abstract

This qualitative study analyzes the attitudes of 11 women who work as club strippers in an attempt to discern the characteristics of the subculture of Israeli strip clubs as viewed in real time. A thematic analysis of individual interviews indicated the existence of a women’s strip club subculture in Israel. This is typified by ongoing efforts to reduce mental and emotional stress, deceit, ambivalence, and power struggles, as articulated in the intense consumption of alcohol,  relationships between strippers and their peers, and strippers’ sexual and non-sexual relations with club owners and

clients. The study concludes that this subculture serves as a platform for generating and designing social systems and achieving various needs and desires unfulfilled in general society; however, it simultaneously weakens the woman stripper who lacks the necessary pragmatic instruments to preserve her fundamental human and occupational rights.

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Cantini Vaisman, D. & Einat, T. (2021). Mental Health Outcomes for Female Inmates without a Mental Disorder: Imprisonment and Post-release Effects of Confinement with Women with a Mental Illness. The Prison Journal, 101(3), 306-330. 

 Abstract 

This study explores the well-being of women offenders without mental disorders during imprisonment and reentry after having been confined with mentally ill female inmates. We found that this joint confinement causes great distress to the mentally stable female inmates, harming both their mental, physical, and emotional condition and their reentry process and rehabilitation. Our findings led us to conclude that women prisoners should be separated from those with mental disorders or be offered a wide range of psychological and emotional coping tools as well as variety of rehabilitative treatment programs.

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דר' נטלי קליין סלה                                                                           Dr. Nathalie klein Selle

 klein Selle, N.*(equal contribution), Waxman, D.*, Volz, K., Ambach, W., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2021). Is the CIT susceptible to misleading information? A constructive replication. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 66, 646-655.

Abstract

The Concealed Information Test (CIT) utilizes psychophysiological measures to detect crime-related knowledge in a suspect's memory. In other words, it can discriminate between knowledgeable (guilty) and unknowledgeable (innocent) suspects. The majority of CIT research is however conducted in controlled laboratory settings, which are more resistant to external influences than realistic forensic settings. Such influences include retroactive memory interferences which may threaten the validity of the CIT. One notable example is the misinformation effect – retroactive memory distortions caused by exposure to misleading information regarding a past event. The current study is a constructive replication of Volz et al. (J Forensic Sci 2017;63:1419) examining the effects of misleading information on the CIT. Participants underwent a three-stage experiment including a mock crime, exposure to misleading information, and a CIT. Results show that when misleading information was presented, explicit memory of the mock crime was reduced, but the physiological responses to the critical CIT items were only partially attenuated. This could suggest that the detection of crime-relevant information, using skin conductance and respiration measures, might be possible even when suspects are exposed to misleading information.

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 klein Selle, N., Gueta, C., Harpaz, Y., Deouell, L., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2021). Brain-based concealed memory detection is driven mainly by orientation to salient items. Cortex, 136, 41–55.

Abstract

In the pursuit of new methods for concealed memory detection, event-related potential components (ERP) have been placed at the forefront of research. No method, however, is scientifically complete without a theory and the present study therefore aimed to unravel the cognitive processes underlying these ERPs (i.e., orienting and arousal inhibition). This was accomplished by using a Concealed Information Test (CIT) in which participants were once motivated to conceal and once motivated to reveal their identity. The results showed a similarly strong P3 CIT effect in the two motivational conditions, which was enhanced for high salience compared to low salience identity items. Similar results were observed when using a multivariate machine-learning algorithm – suggesting that brain-based concealed memory detection is driven mainly by orientation to salient stimuli, rather than by arousal inhibition. In addition, the algorithm, trained and tested on the ERPs of different identity items, achieved detection rates exceeding those achieved by the P3. This implies that CIT researchers and practitioners could potentially rely on the entire ERP waveform instead of a-priori selecting separate components. Together these results enrich current understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurophysiological responding to concealed information and pave the way for novel and powerful algorithms which could be used in real-life forensic investigations.

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klein Selle, N., Gamer, M., & Pertzov, Y. (2021). Gaze-pattern similarity at encoding may interfere with future memory. Scientific Reports 11, 7697.

Abstract

Human brains have a remarkable ability to separate streams of visual input into distinct memory-traces. It is unclear, however, how this ability relates to the way these inputs are explored via unique gaze-patterns. Moreover, it is yet unknown how motivation to forget or remember influences the link between gaze similarity and memory. In two experiments, we used a modified directed-forgetting paradigm and either showed blurred versions of the encoded scenes (Experiment 1) or pink noise images (Experiment 2) during attempted memory control. Both experiments demonstrated that higher levels of across-stimulus gaze similarity relate to worse future memory. Although this across-stimulus interference effect was unaffected by motivation, it depended on the perceptual overlap between stimuli and was more pronounced for different scene comparisons, than scene–pink noise comparisons. Intriguingly, these findings echo the pattern similarity effects from the neuroimaging literature and pinpoint a mechanism that could aid the regulation of unwanted memories.

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פרופ' נתי רונאל                                                                                          Prof. Natti Ronel

Elisha, E., Guetzkow, J., Shir-Raz, Y., & Ronel, N. (2021). Retraction of scientific papers: The case of vaccine research. Critical Public Health, 1–10. 

 Abstract

The controversy over vaccines, which has recently intensified following the COVID-19 pandemic, provokes heated debates, with both advocates and opponents raising allegations of bias and fraud in research. Researchers whose work raises doubts about the safety of certain vaccines claim to be victims of discriminatory treatment aimed at suppressing dissent, including the unjustified retraction of their published research. Such practices have previously been discussed in other controversial fields in science (e.g., AIDS, the environment, and water fluoridation) but not in the field of vaccines. The purpose of this study was to analyze, for the first time, the subjective views of researchers whose papers were retracted. Study participants are active researchers, most with international reputations in their respective fields. They perceived retraction as a means of censoring and silencing critical voices with the aim of preserving the pro-vaccination agenda of interested parties. Participants also reported additional measures aimed at harming them personally and professionally. These findings point to the need for a fair, open, and honest discourse about the safety of vaccines for the benefit of public health and the restoration of trust in science and medicine. 

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Amitay, G., Kamel, D., & Ronel, N. (2021). Sufi non-doing offender rehabilitation: Positive and peacemaking criminology in practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 

Offender rehabilitation is a challenging goal that calls for ongoing creative innovations. Amongst is a non-doing rehabilitative initiation that is inspired by spiritual traditions. The aim of this paper is to present an application of non-doing offender rehabilitation that has no declared intention to rehabilitate, carried by a peacemaking Islamic Sufi route. Based on the positive criminology approach, we conducted a qualitative phenomenological study consisted of interviews with 11 ex-prisoners who were employed in the Shadhiliyya-Yashrutiyya Sufi order as construction workers and also with 35 Sufi disciple and leaders. We identified five themes of non-doing: (1) atmosphere; (2) modeling; (3) social inclusion and suspension of judgement; (4) spiritual meaning; (5) feasibility of transformative processes. The discussion presents principles of a model of non-doing rehabilitation in a spiritual community and emphasizes the research innovation in presenting non- doing as a holistic method of inclusion within a transformative faith community.